Vol 68, No 6 (2013)

HYGIENE: CURRENT ISSUES
ABOUT THE HUMAN HEALTH SAFETY ESTIMATION OF RACTOPAMINE INTAKE TOGETHER WITH THE FOOD
Onishchenko G.G., Popova A.Y., Tutel'yan V.A., Zaitseva N.V., Khotimchenko S.A., Gmoshinskii I.V., Sheveleva S.A., Rakitskii V.N., Shur P.Z., Lisitsyn A.B., Kir'yanov D.A.

Abstract

The analysis of scientific data including American and European scientific communities concerning use of ractopamine as a growth factor in food animal production and the argumentation of the maximum permitted levels of ractopamine and levels of ractopamine in meat and byproducts (offal) is carried out. The position of the Russian side stated at the Codex Alimentarius commission 35th session that acceptable ractopamine daily intake is insufficiently validated and cannot be used for the determination of maximum permitted levels of ractopamine in meat and byproducts (offal) is confirmed. It is represented that residual ractopamine intake together with food on the levels which are recommended by the Codex Alimentarius commission and by taking into account the levels of animal products consumption in Russian Federation will lead to unacceptable human health risk level that will promote increasing heart diseases and life expectancy reduction. In this connection Russia states against of acceptance of maximum permitted levels of ractopamine in food.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):4-8
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MEDICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO FORECASTING INDICATORS OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH IN THE MODERN PERIOD
Kulesh D.V., Kolesnikov S.I., Dolgikh V.V., Shoiko S.V., Abashin N.N., Lebedeva L.N.

Abstract

Data on features of formation of health of different groups of the population in the development process of the country and its regions are an important information base for the development and implementation of measures for the maintenance and strengthening of public health. The aim of the study was to determine and predict trends in indicators of primary disease incidence and prevalence among adolescent population over the next 10 years. Materials provided to analyze the data of the consolidated annual report forms № 12 "The number of registered diseases in patients living in the service area of the medical establishment" for showing trends over the 10-year period (2001-2010). Calculation and analysis of dynamics were integral coefficients, determined the level of adolescent health violations from "low" to "high".  Incidence rate of incidence and prevalence of disease were evaluated by calculating the dynamic coefficient of determination R² approximation. The article presents results of forecasting over the next 10 years in the adolescent population (15-17 years) changes the primary indicators incidence and prevalence of diseases. This technique was used by the authors. In view of the projected increase in detected trends data set of indicators at 40,7-50,2%. Sex predicted dynamics of increase in juniors at 42,1-58.9%, the girls — the 31,2-49,6%. These data characterize negatively predicted for the near future a regional trend in incidence rates in the analyzed populations. They must be taken into account when deciding on the preservation and strengthening of health of the rising generation, including — in shaping regional social programs and health care programs.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):9-14
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES: CURRENT ISSUES
INVASIVE STREPTOCOCCAL (GROUP A) INFECTION OF SOFT TISSUES IN A MOSCOW SURGICAL HOSPITAL
Briko N.I., Glushkova E.V., Dmitrieva N.F., Kleimenov D.A., Lipatov K.V., Eshchina A.S., Timofeev Y.M., Mirskaya M.A., Vvedenskaya O.V.

Abstract

Aim. To study features and risk factors  of soft tissue's invasive streptococcal infection in surgical unit's patients: a) emm-types of the most often recovered streptococcus; b) human immune response for streptococcal antigens (streptolysin-O and the group A carbohydrate antigen); c) main patient's conditions that complicate the course of soft tissue's streptococcal infection. Patients and methods. 101 surgical unit's patients with soft tissue's infection, which group A streptococcal (GAS) nature, were examined. Emm-types were determined by comparison of emm gene sequenced part with data of CDC Streptococcus Laboratory. ASO and specific anti-group-carbohydrate IgM were measured with photometry and ELISA accordingly.  Patient’s personal data were analyzed by standard statistical programs. Results. Among 34 emm-types of all streptococcal isolates emm28 and emm64 were registered only in invasive infection.  Emm-types 1, 49, 60, 66, 77, 84, 88 were most often. Among 23 sera from invasive GAS-infection's patients, 15 (65%) were ASO-negative, 6 (26%) were ASO-low-positive, and 2 (8%) were positive, but negative for the anti-group-A-carbohydrate IgM. Conclusion. Lower levels of the humoral immune response as well as risk factors such as trauma, alcoholism, diabetes, chronic venous insufficiency contributed to development of severe forms of GAS-infection. The main streptococcal emm-types for soft tissue's invasive GAS infection in one of Moscow surgical unit's patients in 2008-2011 were registered.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):15-20
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ETIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS MORBIDITY IN NOVOSIBIRSK AND NOVOSIBIRSK REGION IN EPIDEMIC SEASON 2011–2012
Sergeeva E.I., Ivanova E.V., Shvalov A.N., Ternovoi V.A., Mikheev V.N., Agafonov A.P., Ivanova L.K., Sergeev A.N.

Abstract

Introduction. ARI occupying the first place in the structure of total human morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate the species diversity of the viruses causing ARI among residents of the Novosibirsk region during epidemic season (October to April). Materials and methods. 164 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and analyzed. Viral RNA/DNA, cDNA synthesis and PCR were carried out employing “RIBO-prep”, “Reverta-L”, “AmpliSens Influenza virus A/B-FL” and “AmpliSens ARI-screen-FL” kits (CRI of Epidemiology). Results. Etiological agent of the disease was found in 69 (43%) samples. Monoinfection was found in 58 (35%).In 14 (9%) samples were detected serogroup I coronaviruses, in 13 (8%) rhinoviruses, in 7 (4%) respiratory syncytial virus, in 6 (4%) parainfluenza virus type 1, in 5 (3%) parainfluenza virus type 3. Adenoviruses and bocavirus were identified in 3 (2%) samples. Parainfluenza virus type 2 and 4, metapneumovirus, serogroup II coronaviruses (HKU1 and OC43) were presented in 2 (1%) samples. In 11 (7%) samples was found mixed infection. Conclusion. The majority of common colds were caused by serogroup I coronaviruses (NL63 and 229E), rhinoviruses and mixed infections. The peak of species variability of viruses caused acute respiratory infections was determined in age group of children 2–4 years old. In older age groups the species variability of analyzed viruses was decreased, rhinovirus infection becomes prevalent.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):21-25
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MICROBIOTIC FACTOR INFLUENCING THE MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
Podoprigora G.I.

Abstract

Mononuclear-phagocyte system plays an important role in natural immunity and nonspecific resistance reactions of the organism against infection. The experimental studies using conventional laboratory animals with uncontrolled microflora have certain limitations to fully appreciate the role of autoflora (microbiota) in both development and functional activity of mononuclear-phagocyte system. In the present review of the author’ systemic studies the value of microbiologically controlled animals (gnotobiotes) showing the multifaceted role of microbial factor on various manifistations of mononuclear-phagocyte system including phagocytic activity of the cells of both ageing aspects and pathology conditions (inflammation, burns), influence on the colonization resistance and barrier function against translocations of microorganisms from the intestines, temperature reactions and other host defense mechanisms to infection are demonstrated. In a complex body defence, activity of both cellular and humoral factors is being stimulated and modulated by microbiotic factor. Gnotobiotic modeling approach is prospective one for modeling and analysis of molecular and cellular mechanisms in an assessment of the «host-microbiota» interactions, evaluating the effectiveness of new probiotic candidates and further microbial control development in the clinical settings.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):26-33
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РATHOPHYSIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
PERINANTAL PROGRAMMING OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN CHILD
Kovtun O.P., Tsyv'yan P.B.

Abstract

There is a growing number of evidence linking fetal intrauterine malnutrition, other adverse events or exposures and arterial hypertension during the following life. After important epidemiological studies from many countries, research now focuses on mechanisms of organ dysfunction and on refining the understanding of the interaction between common elements of adverse perinatal conditions and normal development. This review focused  on advances in comprehension of the influence of intrauterine malnutrition on developmental programming of hypertension. Significant decrease in nephrons number was demonstrated as a result of fetal asymmetrical growth restriction syndrome both in human and experimental animal model. The role of malnutrition and dexametasone induced rennin-angiotensin system inhibition in fetal and newborn nephrogenesis is discussed. Recent studies have revealed  important mechanisms of  altered vascular function and structure as well as sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system in perinatal hypertension models. Some of adverse effects on nephrogenesis and blood pressure regulation could be reversed by special diet and treatment during first two years of life. While the complexity of the interactions between antenatal and postnatal influences on blood pressure is increasingly recognized, the importance of early postnatal life in modulating developmental programming offers the hope of a critical 1000 days  window of opportunity to reverse programming and prevent or reduce child hypertension.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):34-38
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CHANGES IN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL PLASTICITY OF THE BRAIN INDUCED BY ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT
Komleva Y.K., Salmina A.B., Prokopenko S.V., Shestakova L.A., Petrova M.M., Malinovskaya N.A., Lopatina O.L.

Abstract

The review contains current data on structural and functional brain plasticity mechanisms under the enriched environment. Enriched environment contains social and non-social stimuli acting on different aspects of the development and functioning of the brain.  Special attention is devoted to the modeling of enriched environment in the experiment. Enriched environment implies the action of social stimuli, new objects, therefore the enriched environment in animals can be considered as an adequate model to study changes in brain structure and function in people during learning or acquiring complex skills. The review describes the theory of  enriched environment’s influence on neurogenesis, the neuron-glia relationships, and the impact of enriched environment on damaged brain as well as  the possibilities of using the paradigm of enriched environment for neurorehabilitation. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission, which has a correlation with the performance of cognitive functions, are the possible target for the action of environmental factors at the brain under (patho)physiological conditions. The considerable progress has been done in understanding the mechanisms that mediate the effects of  enriched environment on the brain, but still there are many non-resolved questions in the neurochemistry and neurobiology of this phenomenon. Overall, the experience-induced neuroplasticity is a unique mechanism for the development and recovery of brain functions. It opens new perspectives in neuropharmacology and neurorehabilitation.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):39-48
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NERVOUS REGULATION ОF THYROID FUNCTION
Lychkova A.E.

Abstract

Review examines the autonomic regulation of thyroid function. Review examines the issues of autonomic regulation of the thyroid gland. Activation of the central α-adrenergic mechanisms increases the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone of pituitary mainly due to the stimulation of its secretion. Dopamine inhibits the secretion of this hormone, acting on D2-receptors tireotropotsitov. Acetylcholine and other cholinomimetics inhibit the functional activity of thyrociteы with the participation of muscarinic receptors. Along the sympathetic and parasympathetic special attention paid to the role of the serotonergic division of vegetative system. Serotonin can inhibit the secretion of thyrotropin by the pituitary gland, but has a direct stimulatory effect on thyrocytes. This stimulatory effect is mediated by the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors. In hypothyroidism synthesis and metabolism of serotonin in the brain are slowed down. Depression is accompanied by inhibition of the enzyme activity deiodinase type 2, thereby reducing the concentration of serotonin. Activation of 5-HT1 receptor lead to increased levels of intracellular calcium, causing inhibition of the promoter of calcitonin gene-associated peptide.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):49-55
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PHYSIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
MODERN MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HUMANS
Ivanov K.P.

Abstract

In a living organism 72% of energy exchange occur in the visceral organs, which comprise only 5-6% of the total body mass. The remaining energy is spent at the expense of the skin, bones, connective tissues, resting muscles. The level of energy expenditure determines the general physiological state of a human organism, serves for the diagnostics of various diseases, in particular, the diseases of endocrine system, the disruptions of thermoregulation, protein, carbohydrate, and lipometabolism, etc. It should be mentioned that in modern textbooks of physiology, pathophysiology, and biology the problem of energy exchange in humans and animals is given inadequate consideration. Traditionally it occupies only 2-2.5% of the content. Meanwhile, new problems of energy exchange have appeared recently, which almost never were advanced earlier. These are, for example, the reasons and mechanisms of high energy expenditure under conditions of metabolism, the significance of the coefficient of efficiency of a human organism in physiology, special processes previously unknown of the organism heat exchange with the environment, physiological and social components of human energy exchange. There is also a problem of a theoretical possibility of life without energy .

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(6):56-59
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