Vol 68, No 1 (2013)

CARDIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
CARDIAC NATRIURETIC PEPTIDES AND HYPERTENSION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Maximov V.F., Korostyshevskaya I.M., Markel' A.L., Filyushina E.E., Yakobson G.S.

Abstract

The peculiarities of cardiac natriuretic peptide secretion have been investigated during ontogenesis using the hypertonic disease model in ISIAH rat line (with inherited stress induced arterial hypertension). The qualitative and quantitative ultrastructural investigations of right atrium myocardium revealed that the cardiac hormonal synthetic and secretory activities in ISIAH rats are higher as compared with normotensive even-aged rats from control group. Secretory hyperactivity of atrial myocytes in ISIAH rats during early ontogeny precedes the manifestations of hereditary hypertension. Natriuretic peptides present the hypotensive circuit of hemodynamic regulation during the whole ontogeny and the complementary chain in hypertension development.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):4-9
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ADAPTIVE PHENOMENON OF ISCHEMIC POSTCONDITIONING OF THE HEART. PERSPECTIVES OF CLINICAL USE
Maslov L.N., Mrochek A.G., Khaliulin I., Hanuš L., Pei J., Zhang Y.

Abstract

Analysis of experimental data indicates that aging, metabolic syndrome may be serious obstacle against realization of cardioprotective effect of postconditioning. The moderate hypercholesterolemia, postinfarction cardiosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy do not abolish protective effect of postconditioning in experimental animals. The issue whether diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension affect an efficacy of postconditioning is a subject of discussion. Clinical investigations testify on cardioprotective impact of postconditioning in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiosurgery patients. At the same time, it is remained unclear when after coronary artery occlusion postconditioning exhibits cardioprotective effect. It is remained unknown how do affect aging, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac postinfarction remodeling and efficacy postconditioning in clinical praxis. It is required a further clinical investigations turning the development pharmacological approaches to prophylaxis of reperfusion injury of the heart.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):10-20
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PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY: CURRENT ISSUES
CEREBROLYSIN FOR ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE
Ziganshina L.Е., Abakumova T.R.

Abstract

The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin ― a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs’ brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):21-29
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PECULIARITIES OF CEREBRAL STRUCTURES FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS WITH ACHONDROPLASIA
Skripnikov A.A., Dolganova Т.I., Аranovich А.M.

Abstract

Complex neurophysiological examination (rheoencephalography, electroencephalography) was carried out in 12 adolescents 12 to 18 years old in order to reveal the peculiarities of cerebral structures functioning in adolescents with achondroplasia. Some deviations from the normal values were found out: reduced blood filling of the brain vessels in the pools of a. carotis interna and a. vertebralis, rheoencephalographic signs of intracranial hypertension of mild degree and brain cycling characterized by moderate and significant amplitude increase, presence of pathological types (δ-, θ-) of the rhythmics and the reduction of the physiological ones (α-, β-). At the same time the peculiarities of rheoencephalographic indices were observed while functional testings (hypercapnia, hyperoxia). Brain cycling differed from normal values by weaker response to the weight-bearing, mainly in α- and β-ranges.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):30-34
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KYNURENINES IN PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOGENOUS PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
Shilov Y.E., Bezrukov M.V.

Abstract

The essential amino acid tryptophan is metabolized on the methoxyindole pathway to serotonin, melatonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and on the kynurenine pathway to kynurenine and related neuroactive metabolites, including 3-hydroxykynurenine, kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid. Kynurenine and related metabolites play a significant role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. This paper is the review of literature data on the most modern state of this problem.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):35-41
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PHARMACOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
EFFICIENCY OF MILDRONATE IN RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE WITH EXPERIMENTAL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
Kukes V.G., Zhernakova N.I., Gorbach T.V., Romashchenko O.V., Rumbesht V.V.

Abstract

Under experimental myocardial ischemia in rats of 10 months treatment with mildronate resulted in essential changes in metabolism of cardiomyocites. This includes stimulation of aerobic and anaerobic ways of power supply of heart cells: activation of glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation with restoration of adenosine triphosphate pool to intact rats level in myocardium, serum and erythrocytes with signs of stabilization of cardiomyocytes membranes and essential decrease of tissue hypoxia. Introduction of mildronate to old rats (24 months) with an experimental myocardium ischemia was accompanied by lesser expressed changes of metabolism: activation of glycolysis and oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation without stimulation of Crebs’ cycle enzymes. This became sufficient for restoration of adenosine triphosphate pool in myocardium without change of its quantity in serum and erythrocytes with signs of stabilization of cardiomyocytes membranes and moderate reduction of tissue hypoxia degree.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):42-46
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PHYSIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
EFFECTS OF A REAL AND MODELED MICROGRAVITY INFLUENCING ON SOME STRUCTURAL AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
Afanas'ev M.A., Kuznetsov S.L.

Abstract

The aim of present publication is summarization of experimental results on real and modeled effects of zero gravity on the impellent device of a man and other mammals. In particular, its effects on high-speed and power characteristics of skeletal muscles depending on their metabolic activity are analyzed.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):47-51
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THE MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATION OF THE VASCULAR BED TO HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN PORTAL HYPERTENSION
Garbuzenko D.V.

Abstract

The data of the literature on the mechanisms of restructuring of vascular bed  in response to hemodynamic changes due to portal hypertension.. Despite the fact that these changes are compensatory-adaptive reaction to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, they contribute to its progression, promoting the development of serious complications, one of which was bleeding from esophageal varices.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):52-57
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SHORT MESSAGES
INTRODUCTION INTO PPPM: EXPERIENCE OF THE PAST AND TOMORROW’S REALITY
Bodrova T.A., Kostushev D.S., Antonova E.N., Gnatenko D.A., Bocharova M.O., Lopukhin Y.M., Pal'tsev M.A., Suchkov S.V.

Abstract

Health service today is on the verge of broad changes. The intensive practical application of the achievements of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics has significantly deepened and continues to deepen our view of the pathological processes taking place at a level of biostructures. In the nearest future this progress will give medical practitioners the opportunity to focus on a subclinical stage of the disease, i.e. on the earliest stages of the pathological process. This will require the prediction of disease development risks, subclinical diagnostics with the precise staging of the pathological process, and, finally, the application as early as possible of targeted pharmacotherapeutic methods in order to prevent the manifestation of the disease or its progression into more severe stages. All these principles create the framework of a fundamentally new «3P» strategy in medicine: predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):58-64
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PROTEOMICS AS A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL FOR SUBCLINICAL SCREENING, TESTS VERIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF APPLIED THERAPY
Suchkov S.V., Kostushev D.S., Krynskii S.A., Gnatenko D.A., Pal'tsev M.A.

Abstract

Proteomics is a science which studies proteins of the body, interactions of proteins and their biological functions. Today, it is an essential partner in establishing preclinical diagnosis protocols. In conjunction with other sciences such as genomics and bioinformatics it will be possible to diagnose diseases on the earliest stages before its clinical onset or to gain the dynamics of pathological processes in the body and response to drug therapy. This article discusses general aspects of proteomics as well as special ones on the basis of models of cardiac diseases and cancer.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):65-71
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PLASTIC CLOSURE OF WOUNDS AND TROPHIC ULCERS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC FOOT SYNDROME BY RELIEF AUTOSHRED
Pavlyshyn A.V., Shidlovskiy V.O., Gerasimchuk P.O.

Abstract

This article describes the features of the surgical treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with diabetic foot syndrome. Results of autodermoplasty of acute and chronic skin damages withripped and flat skin graft in 185 patients who were treated in the clinic of general surgery of I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine, in the period from 2007 to 2012. Using of this method leads to improved cosmetic and functional results in 81,7% of patients with reducing of treatment duration up to 12 days.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(1):72-75
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