Vol 69, No 1-2 (2014)

ONCOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCER
Kushlinskii N.E., Nemtsova M.V.
Abstract

The review presents the main and additional features that distinguish tumor cells from normal tissue cells. They include sustained proliferative signaling, evasion from growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, angiogenesis induction, and invasion and metastasis activation. Basis for the formation of these features is provided by tumor genome instability. Tumors are complex tissues that consist of different cell types interacting with each other as well as with normal cells. An important characteristic of tumor cells is the ability to interact with the tumor microenvironment and the formation of tumor stroma.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):5-15
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SURGERY: CURRENT ISSUES
CONCOMITANT USE OF INTRAVENOUS OZONE THERAPY AND SMALL DOSES OF DIRECT CURRENT IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH STERILE PANCREATONECROSIS
Kaliyev A.A., Zhakiyev B.S., Eleuov G.A., Konakbayeva N.K.
Abstract

Aim: to estimate effectiveness of concomitant use of direct current in a small doses and intravenous ozone therapy in the integrated treatment of patients with sterile pancreatonecrosis. Patients and methods: 89 (39 women and 50 men, average age 48,2±3,6 years) Patient medical records, received a treatment for sterile pancreatonecrosis in surgery departments of Aktobe oblast were analyzed. In the period of 1997–2013, diagnosis of sterile pancreatonecrosis and its complication was found out on the basis of historical study, physical examination, clinical laboratory findings, ultrasound investigation and computerized tomography. All patients passed through complex basic conservative therapy and main group received also intravenous ozone therapy and small doses (20–25mkA) of direct current. Results: usage of small doses of direct current and intravenous ozone therapy in the integrated treatment of patients with sterile pancreatonecrosis helped on more rapid general well-being mend of patients. Conclusions: registered drop of transition frequency of sterile pancreatonecrosis into infected forms in 3 times, reduction of patients period of stay at hospital in 1,6 times and mortality rates — in 1,3 times.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):16-18
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URODYNAMIC ABNORMALITIES IN THE KIDNEYS OF PANCREONECROSIS
Vinnik Y.S., Repina E.V., Serova E.V., Repin A.S., Chavkunkin F.P., Gabrielyan A.A., Zhuravlev M.O.
Abstract

This paper presents experience in monitoring renal ultrasound data in patients with pancreatonecrosis from 20 to 60 years. It is also present two clinical cases of renal urodynamics in destructive forms of acute pancreatitis. Edematous form of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cause violations not only secretion but also excretory function of the nephros. In patients with pancreatic necrosis accompanied by the formation of zones of limited fluid in the retroperitoneal space including retroperitoneal phlegmon may occur ureteral compression which is accompanied by appearance of urodynamic disorders in the nephros of varying severity. Ultrasound monitoring of renal care for patients with edematous form of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis helps to diagnose renal urodynamic disorders which allows timely corrected in the early stages of treatment activities in these patients and improve outcomes.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):19-21
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TRAUMATOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF METABOLIC PROFILE OF BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH THERMAL TRAUMA
Soloveva A.G., Martusevich A.K., Peretyagin S.P., Didenko N.V.
Abstract

Aim: to make multiparametric analysis of blood metabolic profile in early period of burn disease. Materials and methods: we tested blood samples of 15 healthy adults (control group) and 60 patients with thermal trauma (main group — II–IIIA, B degree of burn, more then 15 bsp). Parameters of lipid metabolism, level of glucose, lactate, malonic dialdehyde and some enzymes in blood plasma and erythrocytes were estimated. Results: in early period of burn disease we fixed the clear metabolic disorders, including tissues hypoxia, activation of plasma transaminases and oxidoreductases, inhibition of detoxication system, induction of oxidative stress. Connection of metabolic changes, associated with burn disease, was registered. It supported by numerous correlations between studied parameters, formed from first day after trauma. Conclusions: our data expand the knowledge about mating metabolic changes of catalytic activity of blood enzymes, forming in early period of burn disease (system metabolic disadaptation), and diagnostic value of some blood biochemical parameters in estimation of burned patient metabolism.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):22-25
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CARDIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
ADAPTATIVE RESOURCES OF THE MAIN REGULATORY SYSTEMS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION UNDER THE HIGHLAND CONDITIONS
Kurdanov K.A., Beslaneev I.A., Batyrbekova L.M., Kurdanova M.K.
Abstract

Aim: to study characteristics of hemodynamics, spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and their association with the total blood concentration of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrites and nitrates) in patients with hypertension living in highlands. Patients and methods: 110 natives of the highlands of Elbrus region were examined. All of them were divided into 2 groups — with 2d stage of hypertension (n =50) and conditionally healthy (n =60). All the participants were performed routine examination under the conditions of hospitals and out-patient clinics. Moreover they were performed ECG, rhythm-cardiography, echo-CG evaluation of the blood pressure, renal and thyroid ultrasound and eye-ground examination. The assessment of HRV was made. Results: in the group of patients with hypertension there was decrease in the total power of HRV — TP, low frequency range — VLF, LF and high frequency range HF. The main characteristics of the central and intracardiac hemodynamics were significantly higher in patients with hypertension in decreasing of nitric oxide production. Conclusions: reverse reliable correlations were established between low frequency values of HRV, morpho-functional characteristics of the left ventricle and blood concentration of nitric oxide in patients with hypertension. 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):26-31
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CORRELATION BETWEEN CONCENTRATION OF PATHOLOGICAL CYTOKINES AND ERYTHROPOIETIN IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH ANEMIC SYNDROME
Zahidova K.K.
Abstract

Aim: to study correlation between concentration of pathological cytokines and erythropoietin in patients with chronic heart failure with anemic syndrome and also to prove importance of this communication for need of appointment erythropoietin excitants. Patients and methods: 94 patients with chronic heart failure of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ІІІ–ІV a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less with anemia w ere included in investigation (58 males, 36 females). Anemia was detected when hemoglobin (Hb) was less than 120 g/l in males and less than 110 g/l in females. 46 patients received traditional treatment of CHF (І group) and 48 patients were treated additionally with erythropoietin (EPO) (ІІ group). Percutaneous EPO 50 IU monthly to patients without iron deficiency for a period of 6 months. Echocardiography parameters, plasma NT and pro-BNP, cytokines, EPO, ferritin and 6-minute walking test were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results: in patients with CHF and anemia in ІІ group erythropoietin treatment increased Hb levels by 22,4% (p IL 6 by 54,3% (p α by 48,3% (p increase of LVEF by 19,04% (p Conclusions: Correction of anemia in patients with chronic heart failure with percutaneous erythropoietin injections 50 IU monthly for 6 month period to improve erythropoietin deficit and cytokines aggression and associated anemia, symptoms and quality of life.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):32-37
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PHYSIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
PROLACTIN АND SEROTONIN
Lychkova A.E., Puzikov A.M.
Abstract

An overview of the results of studies on prolactin (PRL) is given. The molecular and genetic characteristics of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) are presented. The PRLR polymorphism in patients with tumors of the breast is described. Synthesized analogues of human PRL inhibited its peripheral effects. The vegetative nervous system modulate PRL secretion. PRL is a risk factor for breast and prostate cancer. The signaling mechanisms of PRL and its possible clinical use in therapy of breast cancer are characterized.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):38-45
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CHANGE OF CARDIAC INO- AND CHRONOTROPIC FUNCTIONS IN STRESSED ANIMALS WITH BLOCKADE OF DIFFERENT NO-SYNTHASES
Tyurenkov I.N., Perfilova V.N., Sadikova N.V.
Abstract

Aim: to investigate the effect of long-term immobilization-painful stress on ino- and chronotropic functions of the heart with inhibition of various NO-synthases. Materials and methods: 30 female albino rats were taken. Blockers of NO-system were: aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg), 7-Nitroindazole (50 mg/kg) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg). Stress was modeled by suspending the animals for cervical dorsal skin fold for 24 hours. The functional reserves of the heart were studied using adrenoreactivity and isometric load tests. Results: experiments showed that immobilization-painful stress leads to a decrease of cardiac ino- and chronotropic functions which is observed in the reduction of increment dp/dt+, dp/dt-, LVP and HR during load tests in comparison to control group of intact animals. Selective blockade of nNOS with 7-Nitroindazole causes even greater decrease an increment indices of myocardial contractility and LVP in stressed animals during load tests. The most pronounced inhibition of inotropic function of the stressed animal’s heart observed in the non-selective inhibition of NO-synthases by L-NAME. Administration of aminoguanidine to animals (inducible NOS blocker)before and after stress causes an increase of inotropic reserve of the heart, resulting in increased increment of myocardial contractility and relaxation findings, left ventricular pressure and heart rate during load tests. Conclusions: NO-ergic system plays a significant role in limiting of the negative stress effects on the contractile function of the heart.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):46-50
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HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN UNTRAINED YOUNG MEN UNDER DIFFERENT POWER LOADING MODES
Chernozub A.A.
Abstract

Aim: to study features of variability of a rhythm of heart at unexercised young men under the influence of power loadings in the conditions of application of certain training modes in the course of long occupations by athleticism. Patients and methods: 40 young men participated in inspections at the age of 19–20 years, not having contraindications for occupations with burdenings. Research of indicators of training loading of both groups used by representatives in the course of occupations conducted a method of definition of an index of training loading in athleticism. For determination of values of indicators of the statistical and spectral analysis of a rhythm of heart the Polar RS800CX cardiomonitor was used. Control of studied indicators at rest and after power loading carried out for 3 months of occupations by athleticism with an interval in 1 month. Results: use in the course of occupations by athleticism of power loadings with large volume of work and low intensity considerably increases activity of the central mechanisms of neurohumoral regulation of a rhythm of heart due to decrease in parasympathetic activation of autonomous nervous system on sinusovy knot of heart, than loading of high intensity with a small volume of work. Conclusions: the result of long-term adaptation to occupations by athleticism, in the conditions of different modes of loading, is characterized by existence of an ekonomization of functioning of cardiovascular system of the unexercised contingent.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):51-56
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MODERN MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF MICROCIRCULATION AND HYPOXIC SYNDROME
Ivanov K.P.
Abstract

In this paper long known problems of microcirculation are shown, which were solved only during the last 40 years. They are concerned with the velocity and character of the capillary blood flow, the regulation of the capillary blood flow, the role of various vessels in the oxygen transport, the role of leukocytes in physiology and pathology of the capillary blood flow, with the special features of the function of lungs in supplying the whole organism with oxygen and with bioenergetic laws in the development of an organism adaptation to hypoxia. Here we considered a number of the most important medical problems of microcirculation and hypoxic syndrome. A relatively new factor in the capillary circulation is the fact that in the brain and heart capillaries there are sites with pO2 close to zero. They show that the capillary circulation has no central nervous regulation of the blood flow. The blood flow in these organs obeys only occasional oscillations. The new fact is that Krogh’s rule about metabolism and oxygen exchange occurring only in the capillaries is abandoned. It is shown that almost 30% of consumed oxygen is delivered to the brain via arterioles, which changes our relation to the capillary circulation as a unique mechanism of the tissue supply with oxygen. The new fact is also the mass adhesion of leukocytes to the walls of microvessels, which results in the occlusion of the vessels followed by the development of the heart and brain ischemia. It was shown for the first time that contrary to previous ideas the alveoli in the lungs are supplied with blood from a powerful network of large microvessels from 20 to 50 μm in diameter rather than from thin arterioles. They make possible the passage of 6–12 l of the blood in the norm and during stressed muscle activity — up to 18–23 l of blood per minute. The principle is substantiated that during hypoxia only normal supply of an organism with oxygen may result in a complete adaptation of an organism to the deficit of oxygen.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):57-63
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SHORT MESSAGES
FOOD SENSITIZATION IN CHILDREN WITH OPISTHORCHIS FELINEUS INVASION
Ogorodova L.M., Fedorova O.S., Fedotova M.M., Evdokimova T.A.
Abstract

Aim: to determine the mechanism of food sensitization in children with chronic Opisthorchis felineus invasion. Patients and methods: during the epidemiological study the groups of patients (7–10 years) with chronic opisthorchiasis (n =237) and children without chronic opisthorchiasis (n =496) were formed. The investigation included interviewing of parents / guardians, measurement of total IgE, specific IgE to food allergens and component-resolved diagnostic, real-time PCR in stool samples. Results: the chronic opisthorchiasis invasion in children is associated with reduced risk of food sensitization, compared with non-infected group (9,7 vs 16,94%, OR =0,53; 95% CI 0,31–0,88; p =0,01). Opisthorchiasis of high intensity negatively correlated with increased level of specific IgE to food allergens in serum (OR =0,46; 95% CI 0,24–0,91; p =0,023). The association between level of total IgE and intensity of opisthorchiasis combinated with food sensitization was found. The sensitization to allergens class I (cyp c1, cor a11, gal d2, pru p3) is more prevalent in patients with opisthorchiasis, in uninfected children the sensitization to bet v1-homologues (mal d1, pru p1, cor a1, ara h8) is most common. Conclusions: the epidemiological data on the effect of the Opisthorchis felineus invasion on mechanisms of food sensitization in children were obtained.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):64-68
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A NEW CLASS OF PHENOMENA IDENTIFIED DURING THE ANALYSIS OF NEURAL NETWORK OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA FROM PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES
Karabinenko A.A., Petrenko Y.M., Storozhakov G.I., Shirohova N.M.
Abstract

Aim: to apply the neural network analysis method of multi-data of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to recognize the variability of their diagnoses and discovery of new analytical capabilities of NSA based on new methodological approaches of the meeting. Materials and methods: in this paper, we applied a new approach of neural network analysis of multivariate data, obtained based on clinical, laboratory and instrumental tests in 60 patients older than 65 years at various stages of the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Anthropometric data were used together with the results of immunological and immunochemical studies of blood serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were in the acute phase of the disease. Results: a new approach analysis of these data revealed the presence of characteristic groups of the bio-markers, which consist from a combination of a small number of the signs that are necessary and sufficient in the aggregate for accurate classification of diagnoses for patients. Conclusions: the presence of these symptoms characteristic series shows that we have discovered a new class of phenomena. These phenomena manifest themselves in the hidden relationships between the signs which included in these groups and are reflect features of the flow processes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the lungs in different diagnostic areas. Their study can be an important and interesting in terms of understanding the many aspects of this disease.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):69-74
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INFLUENCE OF PRODIGIOZAN-DEPENDENT COMUTON ON THE RESISTANCE OF LIVER MITOCHONDRIA AGAINST DAMAGE BY PROTONOFOR
Elbakidze G.M., Medentsev A.G., Elbakidze A.G.
Abstract

An effector of tissue stress of hepatocytes, prodigiozan-dependent comuton (PDC), provokes deenergiezation of liver mitochondria, preloaded by Ca2+ ions. In this case a decrease of membrane potential (MP) and Ca2+ efflux by cyclosporine A sensitive mechanism of megapore is observed. If megapore is blocked by cyclosporin A, protonofor FCCP provoked decrease of MP and Ca2+ efflux by cyclosporin A-insensitive mechanism. It is shown that PDC increases resistance of mitochondria to mentioned protonofor action by inhibition of both these effects. An inhibitory action of PDC is realized by K+ and NADH-dependent mechanism. The effector of hepatocyte tissue stress, prodigiozan-dependent comuton (PDC), evokes deenergizing liver mitochondria preloaded with Ca2+, both membrane potential (MP) decrease and Ca2+ release in according to cyclosporine A- sensitive mechanism of megapore being observed. If megapore is blocked by cyclosporin A, protonophore FCCP reduces of MP and Ca2+ release in according to cyclosporin A-insensitive mechanism. PDC is shown to increase the resistance of mitochondria against protonophore action mentioned above by means of inhibition of both these effects. Inhibitory action of PDC is realized due to both K+ and NADH-dependent mechanism. protective effect takes place only in intact mitochondria of these cells providig (on condition that) its megapore mechanism is not activated. Moreover, the results obttained are evidence of PDC can function as protector due to intensification of energy generation in damaged.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):75-79
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHARMACOKINETICS OF OFLOXACIN IN A FREE AND NIOSOMAL FORMS IN EXPERIMENTS ON WHITE MICE WHEN ADMINISTERED Per Os
Kulichenko A.N., Mikhailova M.E., Kovalev D.A., Pisarenko S.V., Siriza U.V., Lyapustina L.V.
Abstract

Aim: to study features of pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin as a part of anion PEGylated niosomes on a basis of sorbitan monostearate (Span 60) to experimental white mice per os. Materials and methods: ofloxacin was entrapped in niosomes consisting of Span 60, cholesterol, PEG 4000 and dicetylphosphate. Sizes of niosomes estimated by means of probe microscopy. Efficiency of inclusion of an antibiotic in niosomes defined after removal of free drug by a centrifugation. The analysis of the quantitative contents of ofloxacin in samples carried out a method of a high performance liquid chromatography. Results: we studied the main pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin when used free and niosomal forms of antibiotic to experimental white mice per os. It is shown that use of oral niosomal forms leads to decrease of maximal concentration in serum and increase of ofloxacin half-life by 7,4 times in average compared to the free form. It is determined that bioavailability of ofloxacin in the niosomal form is 154% relative to the free form of the antibiotic. Conclusions: niosomal microcontainers are perspective technology of encapsulation and the directed transport of antibacterial preparations through biological barriers. Using of niosomal formulation of ofloxacin is able to afford to increase considerably efficiency of treatment in comparison with a free form and significantly decrease negative effects of antibiotic therapy.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):80-84
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REGULATION OF MELANOGENESIS IN THE DYSCHROMIA OF SKIN
Ismaylov R.G.
Abstract

Aim: to examine the role of immune, biochemical and hormonal factors in the regulation of melanogenesis in patients with chromatopathy. Patients and methods: we observed 226 patients with various forms dyschromia skin. Age of the patients was in the range of 16 to 55 years. The frequency of females (n =157) prevailed over the male sex (n =69) 2,3 times. The disease duration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years. For the study of melanogenesis in vitiligo, nevi and melasma were studied parameters of the immune, endocrine and lipid peroxidation — antioxidant system. Results: melanocytes are responsible for the change in concentration a- chromatophorotropic hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decrease or increase melanogenesis. Activation process is also associated with UFOs. Comparison of the level of system components lipid peroxidation (LPO) – antioxidant system (AOS) suppressor (CD8 +) lymphocyte activity vitiligo patients showed that the most pronounced suppressive effect was observed in patients with high levels of lipid peroxidation. At the same time, patients with hyperpigmentation found a significant negative relationship with СD4+. It should be noted a negative relationship CD16+-lymphocytes with indicators pituitary- adrenal axis in patients Dyschromias (r = -0,318 vitiligo, r = -0,512, r = -0,4578 — in nevi and melasma, respectively). Conclusions: the results showed that vitiliginozny process, especially actively expressed, proceeds with the intensification of lipid peroxidation processes, changes in the state of AOS and immunity. With the increased level of hyperpigmentation CD95+-cells led to a weakening of apoptosis and cause increase in the number of melanocytes. When there is insufficient apoptosis hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation and when — excessive apoptosis. To find mechanisms regulating skin pigmentation necessary to determine a-chromatophorotropic hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and neutral endopeptidase.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):85-92
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FEATURES OF THE SLEEP PATTERN DURING PREGNANCY
Madaeva I.M., Kolesnikova L.I., Protopopova N.V., Sahianova N.L., Berdina O.N.
Abstract

Aim: to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of a sleep in pregnant women in the 3rd term of the physiological pregnancy by a questionnaire survey. Materials and methods: we have demonstrated questionnaire survey data of 400 pregnant women (mean age 27,5±8,2 years) in the 3rd term of pregnancy. Questioning conducted using the scale PSQI (PITTSBURGH SLEEP QUALITY INDEX — Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Assessment Questionnaire), EPWORTH SLEEPINESS SCALE (sleepiness questionnaire Epfort’s) and screening questionnaire to identify obstructive sleep apnea. Results: we have determined that 78% of pregnant women to complain about sleep disorders, namely obstructive sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, «restless legs» syndrome, and combinations thereof. The frequency of sleep disorders increases as pregnancy progresses. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing increases with 10,12% in the 1st term to 31,7% in the 3rd term, insomnia — from 14,3% in the 1st term to 37,6% in the 3rd term. In pregnancy increases of sleep latency (from 14,3 to 44,9 minutes), and reduced the duration of a sleep (from 8,7 to 7,8 hours). Conclusions: high frequency of sleep disorders in pregnancy requires early pathogenetic prevention of pathological conditions, both in the mother and in the fetus. 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):93-97
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ANNIVERSARIES, CONGRATULATIONS
SERGEI MINOVICH KLIMENKO
Abstract

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Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):98
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RAKHIM MUSAEVICH KHAITOV
Abstract

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(1-2):99-100
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