Vol 67, No 8 (2012)

PROCEEDINGS OF THE RAMS SESSION
MODERN NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY
Dedov I.I., Mel'nichenko G.A., Lipatenkova A.K.

Abstract

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Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):7-13
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ADVANCE OF GENETICS AND GENOMICS IN NEUROLOGY
Ginter E.K., Illarioshkin S.N.

Abstract

Studies of genomic basis of neurological disorders is very actual in view of their high population prevalence, severe course, serious patients’ disability, and progressive mental and physical de-adaptation. In the paper, problems of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary neurological disorders and character of the respective genetic burden in the regions of Russian Federation are discussed in detail, a ‘dynamic’ type of mutations (increase in copy number of microsatellite repeats) attributable to many neurodegenerative diseases is analyzed, and achievements of Russian researchers in the identification of genes for hereditary neurological disorders and in the realization of pilot protocols of gene therapy are presented. Problems related to studies of genetic predisposition to common multifactorial diseases of the nervous system are discussed.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):14-20
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INTRACELLULAR BRAIN REGENERATION: A NEW VIEW
Kubatiev A.A., Pal'tsyn A.A.

Abstract

Mechanism of neuron regeneration in the cortex was discovered. Heterokaryon, a cell with two distinct nuclei, is formed by the fusion of neuron with oligodendrocyte. We showed that oligodendrocyte nucleus in heterokaryons is exposed to neuron-specific reprogramming. Oligodendrocyte nucleus becomes similar to neuron nucleus and in result of reprogramming is undefined from it according to morphology (size, shape, chromatin structure). Reprogrammed oligodendrocyte nuclei begin to express the neural specific markers NeuN and MAP2. Rate of transcription in the oligodendrocyte nuclei increases as in neurons. After completion of neuron-specific reprogrammin, second nucleus appears in neuron which increases the functional capacity of the cell. We present evidence that this process is the basis of physiological and reparative regeneration of the brain.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):21-25
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ONTOGENESIS OF NEUROCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Baranov A.A., Maslova O.I., Namazova-Baranova L.S.

Abstract

The article represents the results of neurocognitive development study in progress. Clinical methods of investigation are supplemented with examination of children with Russian computer psychophysiological complex “Psichomat”, which allows to examine a number of cognitive functions — perception, attention, memory, visual-motor coordination, processes of analysis and synthesis — in mathematical function expression: milliseconds and percentage of mistakes. A child’s intrauterine and postnatal development is determined by various factors. Cognitive processes, which are ascending accordingly to a child’s age, play significant role in social development. The standard charts of children psychoneurological development, worked out by the authors, must become key factors both for pediatricians of different subspecialities and for parents and psychologists, in order not to miss the beginning of some pathology condition — from development delay to retardation. During the analysis of cognitive status of a child, speech development, behavior and emotions should be assessed. The deficiency of cognitive functions causes difficulties in education and contact with a child, which in some cases leads to formation of syndromal pathological conditions and disease entities (from mild development delays to different stages of oligophrenia). It is necessary to educate pediatricians of various subspecialities and pediatric neurologists the methods of children examination in order to determine the “cognitive profile” according to the age, health condition, presence of somatic and/or psychoneurological diseases and influence of the drug therapy both on a child’s organism and cognitive processes.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):26-33
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VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVITCH BEKHTEREV — THE FOUNDER OF THE CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHIATRY
Odinak M.M., Neznanov N.G., Chudinovskikh A.G., Tsygan N.V.

Abstract

The article presents main milestones in the career of Vladimir Mikhailovitch Bekhterev. The research in anatomy and physiology of the brain performed by V.M. Bekhterev gave original data of worldwide priority. V.M. Bekhterev significantly improved methodology of neurological examination and differential diagnosis in clinical neuropsychiatry. The scientific heritage of V.M. Bekhterev proves his outstanding role in establishment and development of the neuropsychiatry.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):34-39
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THE EARLY EMBRYONAL ANOMALIES OF HUMAN BRAIN
Savel'ev S.V.

Abstract

The mechanisms of early embryonic pathology of the brain in man and animals were studied. Analysis of the biomechanical properties of development of nervous tissue and embryonal experiments demonstrated that tangential neuroepithelial intention is the major source of positional information. Experimental changes in the neuroepithelial intention system resulted in various types of embryonal anomalies of the nervous system. Mechanical-dependent ion channels that have marked periods of sensitivity and determine the histogenetic direction of neuroblast cell differentiation were found to underline the mechanosensitivity of the neuroepithelium. Experimental findings were compared with unique autopsy data on early development of the human brain. Human embryos were examined from neurulation to month 6 of development. Different types of human embryonal brain anomalies were shown to occur with 3 types of neurulation disordes: 1) an open preneuropore is responsible for anomalies of the forebrain and etmoidal area; 2) arrested neurulation in the postneuropore leads to anomalies of the diencephalons, midbrain, and occipital region; 3) impaired neurulatuion in the caudal region is a cause of spinal cord anomalies. The above anomalies resulted from local compensatory responses of the neuroepithelium due to the lack of intentions that are characteristic of normal development of the neural tube.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):40-46
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FROM I.P. PAVLOV TO CONTEMPORARY NEUROSCIENCES
Sofronov G.A., Samoilov V.O., Klimenko V.M.

Abstract

The article describes the main areas of research IP Pavlov in the field of neurophysiology, and traced its development in modern neurosciences.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):47-52
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THE INFORMATIVE MECHANISMS OF SYSTEMIC ORGANIZATION OF PSYCHIC ACTIVITY
Sudakov K.V.

Abstract

In this review on the basis of functional systems theory developed by P. Anokhin theoretical approaches to informative mechanisms of systemic organization of psychic activity are presented. Author formulates the conception on discrete system quantums of psychic and behavioral activity from needs to its satisfaction and develops its informative equivalents. It was shown that informative equivalents of needs and its satisfaction are reflected in structures of action acceptors in the form of dynamic informative images. On the basis of acceptors of results of action informative systemic quantums are developed which constantly control its manifestation in behavioral systemic quantums. Informative systemic quantums are extracted in advance by predominate motivations and are associated with negative emotions of needs and positive emotions of their satisfaction. The content of this review confirms I.P. Pavlov’s foresight on possible confluence of material and idealistic processes in psychic human activity.


Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):53-56
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NEUROLOGY AT THE BORDER OF CENTURIES: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS
Suslina Z.A.

Abstract

A significant role of neurology for medicine and society is caused by severity of clinical presentations and consequences of the nervous system diseases, as well as by huge economic burden related to neurological pathology. The paper presents a review of the current state and prospects for the development of socially most important fields of modern neurology, among which one can list studies of cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, demyelinating and hereditary disorders, discovery of molecular mechanisms of their pathogenesis, and improvement of the methods of treatment, neurorehabilitation and prophylaxis on the basis of new medical technologies. An essential link between clinical and basic research in expanding the existing knowledge about the structure/functions of the brain in normal conditions and different-type pathological processes is stressed.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):57-65
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FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED ASPECTS OF THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER RESEARCH
Chekhonin V.P., Baklaushev V.P., Yusubalieva G.M., Volgina N.E., Gurina O.I.

Abstract

The results of fundamental and applied studies of blood-brain barrier had been conducted by authors during the last 10 years are summarized in the publication. The molecular anatomy of barrier microvessels, as well as promising markers of BBB and other proteins involved in barrier functions are discussed. Via in vitro experiments with endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels we characterized the basic conditions required for adequate BBB modeling. The in vivo data of BBB permeability for macromolecules in normal and different pathological processis including radiation injury, hyperosmotic shock, and nervous tissue ischemia are properly described. A particular attention was focused upon the experimental studies of the permeability and functional reorganization of barrier endothelium during tumor neoangiogenesis. We detected a dramatically increased permeability of neoplastic microvessels both for horseradish peroxidase/serum albumin and labeled monoclonal antibodies. The increased tumor permeability for IgG and the overexpression of target antigens in tumor tissue and peritumoral zone make possible the targeted delivery of diagnostics and therapeutic agents into the tumor by means of monoclonal antibodies.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2012;67(8):66-78
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