The risk of sperm demage in men with the combined effect of endocrine disruptors

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Abstract


Background: The most frequent ultrastructural change in sperm cells is nuclear DNA fragmentation. Many authors believe that DNA damage to sperm cells can serve as a diagnostic marker of a negative paternal effect in the pre-implantation period of human development. A number of studies have shown a direct correlation between the high percentage of sperm DNA damage and the frequency of spontaneous abortions. On the other hand, it is known that the damaging effect of endocrine disruptors, for example, triclosan and bisphenol A, is based on their ability to induce oxidative stress, which is considered as one of the factors in cell DNA damage.

Aims: to assess the risk of sperm DNA fragmentation in men with the combined effect of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in seminal fluid.

Materials and methods: 84 samples of seminal fluid of men with normo-and patozoospermia were studied. The concentration of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in gas was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The comparison groups were divided according to the degree of DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa into two groups: the 1st group of patients with DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa <15% (n=18) and the 2nd group ≥15% (n=29). The spermiological study was carried out according to the WHO recommendations (2010) taking into account the assessment of the number of spermatozoa, their motility and morphology, as well as the degree of fragmentation of the sperm DNA.

Results: Bisphenol A was found in 100% of the ejaculate samples with a median concentration of 0.150 ng/ml. Triclosan and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 84.3 and 98.1% of ejaculate samples with a median concentration of 0.11 and 0.16 ng/ml respectively. Comparison groups were statistically significantly distinguished by the concentration of bisphenol A and triclosan — p=0.014; p<0.001 respectively. Triclosan with an increase in concentration in seminal fluid by 0.1 ng/ml increased the chance of development of the degree of DNA fragmentation ≥15% by 2.9 times. The odds ratio of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol to DNA damage was not statistically significant. The prognostic model of the joint effect of endocrine disruptors on DNA damage, constructed using multiple logistic regression analysis, was also found to be statistically significant only with respect to the effect of triclosan.

Conclusions: The risk of damage to sperm DNA in men is primarily associated with the effect of triclosan in seminal fluid. At the same time, it is necessary to assume the absence of a synergistic effect of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol on the DNA damage of spermatozoa in men.


Stanislav V. Chigrinets

South-Ural State Medical University of Russian Ministry of Health; DNK Clinic

Author for correspondence.
Email: chigrinstas@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7072-8289
SPIN-code: 2278-8992

Russian Federation, 64, Vorovsky street, Chelyabinsk, 454092; Chelyabinsk

graduate student of the Department of Histology, Embryology and Cytology; doctor o f the infertility treatment center 

Gennadiy V. Brukhin

South-Ural State Medical University of Russian Ministry of Health

Email: bgenvas@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3898-766X
SPIN-code: 7691-8383

Russian Federation, 64, Vorovsky street, Chelyabinsk, 454092

MD, PhD, Professor

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1. Fig. 1. The proportion of normozoospermia and various variants of pathozoospermia (%) View (74KB) Indexing metadata
2. Fig. 2. Comparison of groups by the concentration of EDs (ng / ml) in seminal fluid View (87KB) Indexing metadata

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