NATURAL RESERVOIR OF FILOVIRUSES AND TYPES OF ASSOCIATED EPIDEMIC OUTBREAKS IN AFRICA

Cover Page
  • Authors: Shchelkanov M.Y.1,2,3, Magassouba N.4, Dedkov V.G.5, Shipulin G.A.5, Galkina I.V.1, Popova A.Y.6,7, Maleev V.V.5
  • Affiliations:
    1. Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine
    2. Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity of Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
    3. Hygienic and Epidemiological Center in Primorsky Krai
    4. Donka National Hospital
    5. Central Scientific-Research Institute for Epidemiology
    6. Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing
    7. Russian Medical Academy of Postdegree Education
  • Issue: Vol 72, No 2 (2017)
  • Pages: 112-119
  • Section: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: CURRENT ISSUES
  • URL: https://vestnikramn.spr-journal.ru/jour/article/view/803
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.15690/vramn803
  • Cite item

Abstract


Family Filoviridae includes a set of etiological agents of human hemorrhagic fevers distributed in Africa: Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV), Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV), Marburg marburgvirus (MMARV). Historiography and recent taxonomical structure of Filoviridae family are considered in the review. The discussed data of laboratory and ecological-virological field researches demonstrate the presence of a natural reservoir of filoviruses among fruit-bats (Chiroptera, Megachiroptera) which carry filovirus infection without clinical signs but allocate viruses with urine, saliva, excrements, and sperm, as well as contain viruses in blood and internals. The potential hosts of filoviruses are various mammal species including the higher primacies (Anthropoidea) and the humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). A brief comparison of anatomic and morphologic features of fruit bats and bats (Chiroptera, Microchiroptera) belonging to another suborder of chiropterans is presented. The description of the basic characteristics of the four types of epidemic outbreaks linked with Filoviridae-associated fevers — speleological (from Ancient Greek σπήλαιον — cave), forest, rural, and urban are given; their possible transformation directions are considered as well.


M. Yu. Shchelkanov

Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine; Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity of Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Hygienic and Epidemiological Center in Primorsky Krai

Author for correspondence.
Email: adorob@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8610-7623

Russian Federation

Vladivostok

N. Magassouba

Donka National Hospital

Email: cmagassouba01@gmail.com

Guinea Conakry

V. G. Dedkov

Central Scientific-Research Institute for Epidemiology

Email: vgdedkov@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5500-0169

Russian Federation

Moscow

G. A. Shipulin

Central Scientific-Research Institute for Epidemiology

Email: shipgerman@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3668-6601

Russian Federation

Moscow

I. V. Galkina

Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine

Email: galkina333@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7000-5833

Russian Federation

Vladivostok

A. Y. Popova

Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing; Russian Medical Academy of Postdegree Education

Email: depart@gsen.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9817-5092

Russian Federation

Moscow

V. V. Maleev

Central Scientific-Research Institute for Epidemiology

Email: maleyev@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8508-4367

Russian Federation

Moscow

  1. Щелканов М.Ю., Magassouba N.F., Boiro M.Y., Малеев В.В. Причины развития эпидемии лихорадки Эбола в Западной Африке // Лечащий врач. — 2014. — №11 — С. 30–36. [Shchelkanov MY, Magassouba NF, Boiro MY, Maleev VV. Reasons of Ebola epidemics development in Western Africa. Practitioner. 2014;(11):30–36. (In Russ).]
  2. Щелканов М.Ю., Zoumanigui N., Boiro M.Y., Малеев В.В. Пять мифов о лихорадке Эбола: где кончается вымысел? // РМЖ. — 2015. — Т.23. — №2 — С. 58–65. [Shchelkanov MY, Zoumanigui N, Boiro MY, Maleev VV. Pyat’ mifov o likhoradke Ebola: gde konchaetsya vymysel? RMZh. 2015;23(2):58–65. (In Russ).]
  3. Эпидемиология, профилактика и лабораторная диагностика болезни, вызванной вирусом Эбола. Практическое руководство / Под ред. Поповой А.Ю., Кутырева В.В. — Саратов: Буква; 2015. — 244 с. [Epidemiologiya, profilaktika i laboratornaya diagnostika bolezni, vyzvannoi virusom Ebola. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo. Ed by Popova A.Yu., Kutyrev V.V. Saratov: Bukva; 2015. 244 p.(In Russ).]
  4. Alexander KA, Sanderson CE, Marathe M, et al. What factors might have led to the emergence of Ebola in West Africa? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(6):e0003652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003652.
  5. Baize S, Pannetier D, Oestereich L, et al. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1418–1425. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1404505.
  6. Mari Saez A, Weiss S, Nowak K, et al. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO Mol Med. 2015;7(1):17–23. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201404792.
  7. Чумаков М.П., Беляева А.П., Мартьянова Л.И. Выделение и изучение штаммов возбудителя зоонозной церкопитековой геморрагической лихорадки. XV научная сессия Института полиомиелита и вирусных энцефалитов; Октябрь 21–25, 1968; Москва. [Chumakov MP, Belyaeva AP, Mart’yanova LI. Vydelenie i izuchenie shtammov vozbuditelya zoonoznoi tserkopitekovoi gemorragicheskoi likhoradki. (Conference proceedings) 15 nauchnaya sessiya Instituta poliomielita i virusnykh entsefalitov; 1968 Oct 21–25; Moscow. (In Russ).]
  8. Bonin O. The Cercopithecus monkey disease in Marburg and Frankfurt (Main), 1967. Acta Zool Pathol Antverp. 1969;48:319–331.
  9. Martini G. Marburg agent disease: in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1969;63(3):295–302. doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(69)90001-7.
  10. Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, et al. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations. Arch Virol. 2010;155(12):2083–2103. doi: 10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x.
  11. Bukreyev AA, Volchkov VE, Blinov VM, et al. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Popp (1967) strain of Marburg virus: a comparison with the Musoke (1980) strain. Arch Virol. 1995;140(9):1589–1600. doi: 10.1007/bf01322532.
  12. Smith DH, Johnson BK, Isaacson M, et al. Marburg-virus disease in Kenya. Lancet. 1982;1(8276):816–820. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(82)91871-2.
  13. Johnson ED, Johnson BK, Silverstein D, et al. Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in Kenya. Arch Virol Suppl. 1996;11:101–114. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-7482-1_10.
  14. Pattyn S, van der Groen G, Jacob W, et al. Isolation of Marburg-like virus from a case of haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Lancet. 1977;1(8011):573–574. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(77)92002-5.
  15. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976. Report of an International Commission. Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56(2):271–293.
  16. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO / International study team. Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56(2):247–270.
  17. Bowen ET, Lloyd G, Harris WJ, et al. Viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Preliminary studies on the aetiological agent. Lancet. 1977;309(8011):571–573. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(77)92001-3.
  18. Bowen ET, Platt GS, Lloyd G, et al. A comparative study of strains of Ebola virus isolated from southern Sudan and northern Zaire in 1976. J Med Virol. 1980;6(2):129–138. doi: 10.1002/jmv.1890060205.
  19. McCormick JB, Bauer SP, Elliott LH, et al. Biologic differences between strains of Ebola virus from Zaire and Sudan. J Infect Dis. 1983;147(2):264–267. doi: 10.1093/infdis/147.2.264.
  20. Gibb TR, Norwood DA Jr, Woollen N, Henchal EA. Development and evaluation of a fluorogenic 5’ nuclease assay to detect and differentiate between Ebola virus subtypes Zaire and Sudan. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(11):4125–4130. doi: 10.1128/JCM.39.11.4125-4130.2001.
  21. Geisbert TW, Jahrling PB. Use of immunoelectron microscopy to show Ebola virus during the 1989 United States epizootic. J Clin Pathol. 1990;43(10):813–816. doi: 10.1136/jcp.43.10.813.
  22. Le Guenno B, Formenty P, Wyers M, et al. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus. Lancet. 1995;345(8960):1271–1274. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90925-7.
  23. Wamala JF, Lukwago L, Malimbo M, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1087–1092. doi: 10.3201/eid1607.091525.
  24. Negredo A, Palacios G, Vazquez-Moron S, et al. Discovery of an ebolavirus-like filovirus in Europe. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7(10):e1002304. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002304.
  25. Руководство по вирусологии. Вирусы и вирусные инфекции человека и животных / Под ред. Львова Д.К. — М.: МИА; 2013. — 1197 с. [Rukovodstvo po virusologii. Virusy i virusnye infektsii cheloveka i zhivotnykh. Ed by L’vov DK. Moscow: MIA; 2013. 1197 p. (In Russ).]
  26. Dedkov VG, Magassouba NF, Safonova MV, et al. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Ebola virus (Zaire) during an Ebola outbreak in Guinea in 2014-2015. J Virol Methods. 2016;228:26–30. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.11.007.
  27. Чепурнов А.А., Шестопалова Л.В. Генетические и патофизио-логические факторы вирулентности вируса Эбола. — Новосибирск: Наука-Центр; 2010. — 150 с. [Chepurnov AA, Shestopalova LV. Geneticheskie i patofiziologicheskie faktory virulentnosti virusa Ebola. Novosibirsk: Nauka-Tsentr; 2010. 150 p. (In Russ).]
  28. Щелканов М.Ю., Колобухина Л.В., Львов Д.К. Грипп: история, клиника, патогенез // Лечащий врач. — 2011. — №10 — С. 33–38. [Shchelkanov MYu, Kolobukhina LV, L’vov DK. Gripp: istoriya, klinika, patogenez. Practitioner. 2011;(10):33–38. (In Russ).]
  29. Callaway E. Hunt for Ebola’s wild hideout takes off as epidemic wanes. Nature. 2016;529(7585):138–139. doi: 10.1038/529138a.
  30. Hayman DT, Yu M, Crameri G, et al. Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, Ghana, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1207–1209. doi: 10.3201/eid1807.111654.
  31. Leroy EM, Epelboin A, Mondonge V, et al. Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9(6):723–728. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0167.
  32. Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, et al. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature. 2005;438(7068):575–576. doi: 10.1038/438575a.
  33. Funk S, Piot P. Mapping Ebola in wild animals for better disease control. Elife. 2014;3:e04565. doi: 10.7554/eLife.04565.
  34. Arata AA, Johnson B. Approaches toward studies on potential reservoirs of viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan. In: Pattyn SRS, editor. Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever. New York, NY: Elsevier; 1978. p. 191–200.
  35. Germain M. Collection of mammals and arthropods during the epidemic of haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. In: Pattyn SRS, editor. Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever. New York, NY: Elsevier; 1978. p. 185–189.
  36. Bermejo M, Rodríguez-Teijeiro JD, Illera G, et al. Ebola outbreak killed 5 000 gorillas. Science. 2006;314(5805):1564. doi: 10.1126/science.1133105.
  37. Formenty P, Boesch C, Wyers M, et al. Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Cote d’Ivoire. J Infect Dis. 1999;179 Suppl 1:S120–S126. doi: 10.1086/514296.
  38. Hayes CG, Burans JP, Ksiazek TG, et al. Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46(6):664–671. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1992.46.664.
  39. Rouquet P, Froment J-M, Bermejo M, et al. Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(2):283–290. doi: 10.3201/eid1102.040533.
  40. Vogel G. Tracking Ebola’s deadly march among wild apes. Science. 2006;314(5805):1522–1523. doi: 10.1126/science.314.5805.1522.
  41. Wittmann TJ, Biek R, Hassanin A, et al. Isolates of Zaire ebolavirus from wild apes reveal genetic lineage and recombinants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(43):17123–17127. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0704076104.
  42. Monath TP. Ecology of Marburg and Ebola viruses: speculations and directions for future research. J Infect Dis. 1999;179 Suppl 1:S127–S138. doi: 10.1086/514281.
  43. Peterson AT, Bauer JT, Mills JN. Ecologic and geographic distribution of filovirus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(1):40–47. doi: 10.3201/eid1001.030125.
  44. Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Burt FJ, et al. Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):321–325. doi: 10.3201/eid0204.960407.
  45. Connolly BM, Steele KE, Davis KJ, et al. Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs. J Infect Dis. 1999;179 Suppl 1:203–217. doi: 10.1086/514305.
  46. Volchkova VA, Dolnik O, Martinez MJ, et al. Genomic RNA editing and its impact on Ebola virus adaptation during serial passages in cell culture and infection of guinea pigs. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S941–S946. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir321.
  47. Pettigrew JD, Jamieson BG, Robson SK, et al. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1989;325(1229):489–559. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1989.0102.
  48. Amman BR, Jones ME, Sealy TK, et al. Oral shedding of Marburg virus in experimentally infected Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). J Wildl Dis. 2015;51(1):113–124. doi: 10.7589/2014-08-198.
  49. Jones ME, Schuh AJ, Amman BR, et al. Experimental inoculation of Egyptian rousette bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) with viruses of the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera. Viruses. 2015;7(7):3420–3442. doi: 10.3390/v7072779.
  50. Paweska JT, Jansen van Vuren P, Fenton KA, et al. Lack of Marburg virus transmission from experimentally infected to susceptible in-contact Egyptian fruit bats. J Infect Dis. 2015;212 Suppl 2:S109–S118. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv132.
  51. Paweska JT, Jansen van Vuren P, Masumu J, et al. Virological and serological findings in Rousettus aegyptiacus experimentally inoculated with vero cells-adapted hogan strain of Marburg virus. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45479. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045479.
  52. Amman BR, Carroll SA, Reed ZD, et al. Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(10):e1002877. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.
  53. Feldmann H, Wahl-Jensen V, Jones SM, Ströher U. Ebola virus ecology: a continuing mystery. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12(10):433–437. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2004.08.009.
  54. Hayman DT, Emmerich P, Yu M, et al. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses. PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e11978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011978.
  55. Nakazibwe C. Marburg fever outbreak leads scientists to suspected disease reservoir. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85(9):654–656. doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000900006.
  56. Swanepoel R, Smit SB, Rollin PE, et al. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(12):1847–1851. doi: 10.3201/eid1312.071115.
  57. Kobinger GP, Leung A, Neufeld J, et al. Replication, pathogenicity, shedding, and transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in pigs. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(2):200–208. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir077.
  58. Nfon CK, Leung A, Smith G, et al. Immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory disease in Zaire ebolavirus-infected pigs. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061904.
  59. Weingartl HM, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, et al. Transmission of Ebola virus from pigs to non-human primates. Sci Rep. 2012;2:811. doi: 10.1038/srep00811.

Supplementary files

There are no supplementary files to display.

Views

Abstract - 15

PDF (Russian) - 34

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies