ROTAVIRUS INFECTION: EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, VACCINATION

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Abstract


Diarrheal infections remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age. The rotavirus holds the leading position among principal diarrheal pathogens that include also norovirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Rotaviruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are extremely contagious and stable in the environment. This facilitates viral transmission, particularly in children daycare centers and hospitals. Rotavirus infection causes acute gastroenteritis with diarrhea and dehydration of various degrees resulting primarily from destruction of intestinal villus enterocytes with subsequent impairment of the ion transport and absorption. The incidence of rotavirus infection peaks during the winter and spring in countries with temperate climate. Many children have asymptomatic infection that supports rotavirus circulation in the population. Several vaccines have been developed for specific prophylaxis of rotavirus infections and demonstrated protection from severe acute rotavirus gastroenteritis and all-cause diarrheal mortality.

 


N. A. Mayanskii

Scientific Centre of Children Health, Moscow, Russian Federation
Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: mayansky@nczd.ru

Russian Federation доктор медицинских наук, заведующий лабораторным отделом Научного центра здоровья детей, профессор кафедры аллергологии и клинической иммунологии Первого МГМУ им. И.М. Сеченова
Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д. 2, стр. 1, тел.: +7 (499) 134-02-18

A. N. Mayanskii

State Medical Academy, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russian Federation

Email: mayansky@gma.nnov.ru

Russian Federation доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры микробиологии и иммунологии НижГМА
Адрес: 603005, Нижний Новгород, пл. Минина и Пожарского, д. 10/1, тел.: +7 (831) 469-79-73

T. V. Kulichenko

Scientific Centre of Children Health, Moscow, Russian Federation
Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russian Federation

Email: Tkulichenko@yandex.ru

доктор медицинских наук, заведующая отделением неотложной педиатрии Научного центра здоровья детей
Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д. 2, стр. 1, тел.: +7 (499) 134-30-83

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