Bacterial Translocation from Intestine: Microbiological, Immunological and Pathophysiological Aspects

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Abstract


Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins. Dynamic cell humoral response to microbial molecular patterns that occurs on the mucous membranes initiates receptor signaling pathways and cascade of reactions. Their vector and results are largely determined by cross-reactivity between microbiome and the host genome. Enterocyte barriers interacting with microbiota play leading role in providing adaptive, homeostatic and stress host reactivity. Microcirculatory ischemic tissue alterations and inflammatory reactions increase the intestinal barrier permeability and BT. These processes a well as mechanisms for apoptotic cells and bacteria clearance are justified to be of prospective research interest. The inflammatory and related diseases caused by alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier are reasonably considered as diseases of single origin. Maternal microbiota affects the formation of the innate immune system and the microbiota of the newborn, including intestinal commensal translocation during lactation. Deeper understanding of intestinal barrier mechanisms needs complex microbiological, immunological, pathophysiological, etc. investigations using adequate biomodels, including gnotobiotic animals.

Gennadiy Ignat'evich Podoprigora

The Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I. Pirogov; Institute of Cytochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

Author for correspondence.
Email: gipodoprigora@yandex.ru

Russian Federation MD, PhD, Professor, Director of the Institute of Cytochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

Lyudmila Ivanovna Kafarskaya

The Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I. Pirogov

Email: likmed@mail.ru

Russian Federation MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Microbiology and Virology department

Nikolay Alekseevich Baynov

The Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I. Pirogov

Email: vonib@mail.ru

Russian Federation MD, PhD, Professor assistance

Andrey Nikolaevich Shkoporov

The Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I. Pirogov

Email: a.shkoporov@gmail.com

Russian Federation MD, PhD, Cheif Researcher

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