Biochemical and Signaling Functions of Plasmalogens in the Norm and in Various Diseases

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Plasmalogens (PL) are alkenyl ether glycerophospholipids that perform many physiologically important functions in the body and have a variety of properties. The role of PLs as endogenous antioxidants is well studied, as well as PLs that determine the physicochemical properties of biomembranes, deposit polyunsaturated fatty acids, participate in cholesterol biosynthesis, the process of ferroptosis and adaptation of cells to hypoxia, are sources for the synthesis of platelet activating factor and act as its antagonists. At the same time, LPs are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, inflammatory, oncological diseases and a number of other pathologies. These conditions are united by the development of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, accompanied by a change in the activity of synthesis and the content of PL in cells. Despite the fact that PL replacement therapy inhibits inflammation, the molecular mechanisms of the association of PL with inflammation have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest literature data on the structure, biosynthesis, and functions of PL, their relationship with signaling cascades involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and neuroinflammatory diseases, as well as to show current achievements and future prospects for the use of PL in the treatment of certain diseases.

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About the authors

Oxana Yu. Kytikova

Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration — Research Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitation Treatment

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5018-0271
SPIN-code: 3006-5614


Russian Federation, Vladivostok

Tatyana P. Novgorodceva

Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration — Research Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitation Treatment

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6058-201X
SPIN-code: 5888-6099

PhD in Biology, Professor

Russian Federation, Vladivostok

Yulia K. Denisenko

Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration — Research Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitation Treatment

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4130-8899
SPIN-code: 4997-3432

PhD in Biology

Russian Federation, Vladivostok


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Alkenyl phospholipids (plasmalogens): R1 is a hydrocarbon fragment of fatty alcohols and aldehydes; R2 - hydrocarbon fragments of fatty acids; X - ethanolamine, choline or serine

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2. Fig. 2. Plasmalogen biosynthesis pathway: Plasmalogen. In Wikipedia. Created: 2019-10-29. Updated: 2019-10-29 11:40:16. License: CC BY-SA 4.0.Usage terms: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0. Credit: Own work | Phaeton68 FAR1 (fatty alcohol reductase 1) - reductase of fatty alcohols; GNPAT (glycerone phosphate O-acyltransferase) - glycerone phosphate acyltransferase; AGPS (alkylglycerone phosphate synthase) - alkylglycerone phosphate synthase; acyl / alkyl DHAP reductase - alkylacyl DHAP reductase

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