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Вестник Российской академии медицинских наук

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ИММУНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАРУШЕНИЯ И КОГНИТИВНЫЙ ДЕФИЦИТ ПРИ СТРЕССЕ И ФИЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ СТАРЕНИИ. ЧАСТЬ I: ПАТОГЕНЕЗ И ФАКТОРЫ РИСКА

https://doi.org/10.15690/vramn.v69i5-6.1038

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Аннотация

В обзоре рассматриваются иммунологические механизмы развития когнитивного дефицита при стрессе и физиологическом старении,
а также предлагаются новые подходы к терапии подобных состояний. У млекопитающих сложный комплекс адаптационных механизмов представлен в виде триады, образованной центральной нервной, иммунной и эндокринной системой, которые постоянно обмениваются сигналами в виде нервных импульсов и растворимых медиаторов. Головной мозг, защищенный гематоэнцефалическим барьером (ГЭБ) от проникновения потенциально опасных клеток и растворимых факторов, самостоятельно продуцирует цитокины, которые вместе с другими нейромедиаторами регулируют процессы обучения и формирования памяти, а также нейрогенез у взрослых особей. Стресс любого происхождения сопровождается ростом концентрации цитокинов в крови и повышением проницаемости ГЭБ. В результате циркулирующие в крови цитокины могут проникать в мозг, где начинают выполнять «неиммунологические» функции. Ослабление барьерной функции ГЭБ и развивающаяся нейровоспалительная реакция способствуют массовой миграции дендритных клеток и лимфоцитов из периваскулярного пространства в паренхиму мозга. Вторжение чуждых центральной нервной системе медиаторов и иммунных клеток вызывает развитие когнитивных расстройств как у человека, так и у экспериментальных животных. Повторные эпизоды стресса способствуют накоплению в головном мозге иммунных клеток, обусловливают необратимое изменение проницаемости ГЭБ, нарушают нейрогенез у взрослых особей в зубчатой извилине гиппокампа. Подобные неблагоприятные изменения протекают в головном мозге пожилых людей при нормальном физиологическом старении. Более того, длительном стрессе и при физиологическом старении возникают сходные иммунологические и гормональные нарушения, прежде всего гиперактивация и последующее истощение гипоталамо-гипофизарно-надпочечниковой оси, накопление избыточного количества регуляторных Т клеток, снижение продукции дегидроэпиандростерона.

Об авторах

А. Л. Пухальский
Медико-генетический научный центр, Москва, Российская Федерация
Россия


Г. В. Шмарина
Медико-генетический научный центр, Москва
Россия
кандидат медицинских наук, ведущий научный сотрудник отдела муковисцидоза МГНЦ


В. А. Алёшкин
Московский НИИ эпидемиологии и микробиологии им. Г.Н. Габричевского
Россия
доктор биологических наук, профессор, директор МНИИЭМ им. Г.Н. Габричевского


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Для цитирования:


Пухальский А.Л., Шмарина Г.В., Алёшкин В.А. ИММУНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАРУШЕНИЯ И КОГНИТИВНЫЙ ДЕФИЦИТ ПРИ СТРЕССЕ И ФИЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ СТАРЕНИИ. ЧАСТЬ I: ПАТОГЕНЕЗ И ФАКТОРЫ РИСКА. Вестник Российской академии медицинских наук. 2014;69(5-6):14-22. https://doi.org/10.15690/vramn.v69i5-6.1038

For citation:


Pukhal'skii A.L., Shmarina G.V., Aleshkin V.A. IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION АND COGNITIVE DEFICIT IN STRESS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING (PART I): PATHOGENESIS AND RISK FACTORS. Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2014;69(5-6):14-22. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15690/vramn.v69i5-6.1038

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