Data analysis of a pilot screening program for the early detection of esophageal and gastric cancers: retrospective study

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Abstract


BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, in 2018 stomach cancer was the fifth and esophageal cancer seventh most common cancer in the world. In 2011 the National Screening Program for the Early Detection of Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer was introduced in Kazakhstan. In 2013 a pilot screening program for the early detection of esophageal and stomach cancers was introduced in Kazakhstan in some regions where there is a low detectability.

AIM: Determination of the main causes of low detection of esophageal and stomach cancers in the framework of a pilot screening program in Pavlodar region (Kazakhstan).

METHODS: According to the Ministry of Healthcare of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the target group for screening to detect esophageal and stomach cancers was men and women at the aged of 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 who were not registered as a cancer patient. A retrospective analysis was carried out according to the newly diagnosed cases of esophageal and stomach cancers in Pavlodar region for 2013−2017. All cases of esophageal and stomach cancers were analyzed to determine the proportion of new cases detected as part of a pilot screening program.

RESULTS: 1114 new cases of esophageal and stomach cancers are registered from 2013 to 2017 in Pavlodar region. According to the data in Pavlodar region the average age of newly diagnosed patients with esophageal and stomach cancers was 66 years, M = 65.92 (95 % CI: 65.24−66.59) SD = 11.495. During pilot screening program, 135 042 participants were examined; various pathological processes of the esophageal and stomach cancers were detected among 1678 patients, including 97 cancer cases. The detectability of esophageal and stomach cancers from the total number of participants was 0.07 %. Out of 1114 all registered new cases of esophageal and stomach cancers, only 97 new diagnosed cases detected as part of a pilot screening program, reaching 8.7 %, which is considered low.

CONCLUSIONS: The main reasons for low detection are administrative barriers. The main barrier of the pilot screening program was the selection of the target group at the age of 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60 years old only. Therefore, 15.5 % of newly diagnosed cases of esophageal and stomach cancers were missed due to existing intervals. The second barrier was the use of endoscopes which did not support the function of photo and video archiving of the conducted procedures.


Dariga S. Smailova

Semey Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: dari190490@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7152-7104
SPIN-code: 2575-9219

Kazakhstan, Semey

MD

Serik E. Ibrayev

Medical University Astana

Email: serik_ibraev@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7828-3042
SPIN-code: 9515-3361

Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan

MD, PhD, Professor

Satybaldy N. Muzafarov

Pavlodar branch of Semey Medical University

Email: ms_nuh@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4135-6930
SPIN-code: 7113-7242

Kazakhstan, Pavlodar

Ассистент кафедры хирургии № 1 Павлодарского филиала Государственного медицинского университета г. Семей

Umutzhan S. Samarova

Semey Medical University

Email: samarova58@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3320-7115
SPIN-code: 9431-1034

Kazakhstan, Semey

MD, PhD, Associate Professor

Zaituna A. Khismetova

Semey Medical University

Email: zaituna.khismietova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5937-3045
SPIN-code: 5193-5729

Kazakhstan, Semey

MD, PhD, Associate Professor

Farida S. Rakhimzhanova

Semey Medical University

Email: fa66rida@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1711-2167
SPIN-code: 7495-1759

Kazakhstan, Semey

MD, PhD, Associate Professor

Elisa Fabbro

University of Udine

Email: elisa.fabbro@uniud.it
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6930-4297

Italy, Udine

PhD

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1. Fig. 1. Implementation of a pilot screening program for early detection of cancer of the esophagus and stomach in the Republic of Kazakhstan View (553KB) Indexing metadata
2. Fig. 2. The age structure of newly diagnosed cases of cancer of the esophagus and stomach in Pavlodar region over 5 years View (152KB) Indexing metadata

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