PROMISING TARGETED THERAPIES GENES AND PROGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS OF GASTRIC CANCER

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Abstract


Understanding the molecular genetic features of gastric cancer (GC) and principally the functioning of signaling cascades involved in its occurrence and development is determining for identifying the most promising genes for targeted therapy. On this basis, development and consequent implementation of effective drugs and treatment regimens is conducted. The inductors of signaling paths, the main one of which is the mTOR pathway, and the functioning of the pathway are considered in details. mTOR inductors (angiogenesis factors, epidermal growth factor and their receptors) are most actively studied as therapeutic targets. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of stimulation and development of lymphangiogenesis where not all genes are discovered and examined yet. The possibility of achieving a significant therapeutic effect with simultaneous inhibition of the action of genes of angio- and lymphangiogenesis is considered. The review covers the administered target drugs and pharmaceuticals under investigation for GC therapy, including immunotherapy. The review provides details on the simultaneous activation of several genes ― potential targets of therapy and possible interactions in the development of the tumor process. As a result the combined effect of the simultaneous action of two or more factors can be detected. The possibility of maintaining the activated signaling cascade when one of the activated receptors is blocked in consequence of the action of another expressed receptor is also considered. The article presents information on development of drugs affecting several targets and on effectiveness of combined therapy with different targeted drugs. Essential effectiveness of GC therapy can be achieved by personified treatment including application of molecular classification. The review discusses the prognostic value of target and other genes expression, as well as GC subtypes according molecular classification.


Fatima M. Kipkeeva

Research Centre for Medical Genetics

Author for correspondence.
Email: BRCA1@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4778-9726

Russian Federation

1, Moskvorechie street, 115522 Moscow.

SPIN-код: 5902-4070

Tatiana A. Muzaffarova

Research Centre for Medical Genetics

Email: tatiana.muzaffarova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2345-2056

Russian Federation

MD, PhD.

1, Moskvorechie street, 115522 Moscow.

SPIN-код: 4657-2770

Maxim P. Nikulin

NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Centre

Email: maximpetrovich@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9608-4696

MD, PhD.

Moscow.

SPIN-код: 9455-5566

Pavel V. Apanovich

Research Centre for Medical Genetics

Email: Apanovich2004@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6576-5512

1, Moskvorechie street, 115522 Moscow.

SPIN-код: 6748-9211

Alexander V. Karpukhin

Research Centre for Medical Genetics

Email: karpukhin@med-gen.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7001-9116

PhD.

1, Moskvorechie street, 115522 Moscow.

SPIN-код: 2929-1276

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