Peculiarities of Allergy Diagnosis in Children

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Abstract


Allergic disease is a serious problem in practical healthcare. Over the last 40 years there has been exponential growth in the prevalence. According to the world health organization information, allergic diseases are at the 2nd place in prevalence the children, behind the viral infections. Their frequency and severity are increasing. In this regard, the relevance of timely and skilled diagnostic allergopathology is most important. In this study the current state of the question of allergy diagnostics is considered, the international experience is summarized and the approach to the allergy diagnosis based on use of step-by-step identification of a causal and significant factor of allergic reactions is offered. On the basis of the analysis of relevance and the importance for patients of one or the other allergens (taking into account a source of allergens and age of patients) use of a step-by-step allergy diagnostics algorithm is offered. The first step is definition of clinical implications of an allergy. It means direct contact of the phisition with the patient, clarification of its complaints, clinical symptoms, medical history disease. The second step is the confirmation of IgE-dependent mechanism. It involves the using of screening tests that are selected depending on the clinical symptoms and seasonality manifestations (the screening module). The third step is to identify the source of the allergens that are most meaningful for the patient with using test panels (modules). The panels include the most common and clinically relevant triggers of allergic reactions. The fourth step is the search for an individual significant allergens, which were not included in the diagnostic modules. On the fifth step, we plan to conduct component-divided diagnostics and detect the antibodies to unique components of significant allergens. The developed diagnostics algorithm, corresponds to needs of both the adult, and children’s population and provides the personalized approach to the patients.

L. S. Namazova-Baranova

National Scientific and Practical Center of Children’s Health;
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: namazova@nczd.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2209-7531

Академик РАН, доктор медицинских наук, профессор, директор НИИ педиатрии ФГАУ ННПЦЗД Минздрава России, заведующая кафедрой факультетской педиатрии педиатрического факультета РНИМУ им. Н.И. Пирогова.

Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д.2, стр. 1

SPIN-код: 1312-2147

M. A. Snovskaya

National Scientific and Practical Center of Children’s Health

Author for correspondence.
Email: snows@inbox.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5263-6743

Russian Federation

Кандидат медицинских наук, врач клинической лабораторной диагностики отдела инструментальной диагностики.

Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д.2, стр. 1

SPIN-код: 9899-1095

I. L. Mitushin

National Scientific and Practical Center of Children’s Health

Email: mitushin@nczd.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0606-7201

Врач-педиатр отдела диагностики и восстановительного лечения.

Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д.2, стр. 1

SPIN-код: 4497-2733

O. V. Kozhevnikova

National Scientific and Practical Center of Children’s Health

Email: fd@nczd.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8562-6851

Кандидат медицинских наук, заведующая отделом инструментальной диагностики НИИ педиатрии.

Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д.2, стр. 1

SPIN-код: 2215-2910

A. S. Batyrova

National Scientific and Practical Center of Children’s Health

Email: melograno8@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9809-6922

Врач клинической лабораторной диагностики отдела инструментальной диагностики.

Адрес: 119991, Москва, Ломоносовский пр-т, д.2, стр. 1

SPIN-код: 8567-3506

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