Paraoxonase: The Universal Factor of Antioxidant Defense in Human Body

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The paraoxonase (PON) gene family includes three members: PON1, PON2, and PON3 aligned in tandem on chromosome 7 in humans. All PON proteins share considerable structural homology and have the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress; therefore, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. Increased production of reactive oxygen species as a result of decreased activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes plays a role in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PON1 and PON3 proteins can be detected in plasma and reside in the high-density lipoprotein fraction and protect against oxidative stress by hydrolyzing certain oxidized lipids in lipoproteins, macrophages, and atherosclerotic lesions. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) possesses antiatherogenic properties and is associated with lower ROS levels. PON2 is involved in the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. In contrast to PON1 and PON3, PON2 is cell-associated and is not found in plasma. It is widely expressed in a variety of tissues, including the kidney, and protects against cellular oxidative stress. Overexpression of PON2 reduces oxidative status, prevents apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells, and inhibits cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation. PON2 also inhibits the development of atherosclerosis, via mechanisms involving the reduction of oxidative stress. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON in disease development and modulation of PONs by infective (bacterial, viral) agents.

About the authors

E. I. Borovkova

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7140-262X

Доктор медицинских наук, доцент, профессор кафедры акушерства и гинекологии лечебного факультета. 


Адрес: 117997, Москва, ул. Островитянова, д. 1

Russian Federation

N. V. Antipova

M.M. Shemyakin and Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of bioorganic chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
RUDN University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5799-7767

Кандидат биологических наук, научный сотрудник ФГБУН «Институт биоорганической химии им. академиков М.М. Шемякина и Ю.А. Овчинникова РАН», доцент кафедры фармацевтической и токсикологической химии РУДН. 

Адрес: 117997, Москва, ГСП-7, ул. Миклухо-Маклая, д. 16/10

Russian Federation

T. V. Korneenko

M.M. Shemyakin and Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of bioorganic chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5899-6168

Кандидат биологических наук, научный сотрудник.

Адрес: 117997, Москва, ГСП-7, ул. Миклухо-Маклая, д. 16/10

Russian Federation

M. I. Shakhparonov

M.M. Shemyakin and Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of bioorganic chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5965-8067

Доктор химических наук, ведущий научный сотрудник.

Адрес: 117997, Москва, ГСП-7, ул. Миклухо-Маклая, д. 16/10

Russian Federation

I. M. Borovkov

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2017-8047

Студент лечебного факультета.


Адрес: 119991, Москва, ул. Большая Пироговская, д. 2, стр. 2

Russian Federation


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