Vitamin D — A New Vector of Cancer Prevention?

Cover Page


Currently, a great number of research projects are focused on finding new treatment methods for cancer and carcinogenesis predictors, as well as the ways to dicrease cancer development risks. This article provides an overview of research on vitamin D as cancer prevention factor. The results of independent experiments and in vitro tests explaining the mechanisms of protective effect of vitamin D and its derivatives on cancer are illustrated. The review of epidemiological survey results obtained from different countries and various populations that were focused on the association of vitamin D use with various cancer pathologies incidence was performed.

About the authors

O. S. Kobyakova

Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.

доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующая кафедрой общей врачебной практики с курсом поликлинической терапии СибГМУ, ректор СибГМУ Адрес: 634050, Томск, Московский тракт, д. 2, тел.: + 7 (3822) 53-04-23

Russian Federation

I. A. Deev

Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation


доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры факультетской педиатрии с курсом детских болезней лечебного факультета СибГМУ, проректор по развитию – первый проректор СибГМУ Адрес: 634050, Томск, Московский тракт, д. 2, тел.: + 7 (3822) 53-04-23

Russian Federation

D. S. Tyufilin

Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation


студент VI курса лечебного факультета СибГМУ Адрес: 634050, Томск, Московский тракт, д. 2, тел.: + 7 (3822) 52-77-47

Russian Federation

E. S. Kulikov

Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation


доктор медицинских наук, доцент кафедры общей врачебной практики с курсом поликлинической терапии СибГМУ, начальник научного управления СибГМУ Адрес: 634050, Томск, ул. Московский тракт, д. 2, тел.: + 7 (3822) 52-77-47

Russian Federation


  1. Parsons A., Daley A., Begh R., Aveyard P. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010; 340: b5569.
  2. Allen J.D., Coronado G.D., Williams R.S., Glenn B., Escoffery C., Fernandez M. A Systematic Review of Measures Used in Studies of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Acceptability. Vaccine. 2010; 28 (24): 4027–4037.
  3. Mellanby E. An experimental investigation on rickets. Lancet. 1919; 1: 407–412.
  4. McCollum E.V., Simmonds N., Becker J.E., Shipley P.G. An experimental demonstration of the existence of a vitamin which promotes calcium deposition. J. Biol. Chem. 1922; 53: 293–298.
  5. Haussler M.R., Norman A.W. Chromosomal receptor for a vitamin D metabolite. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1969; 62: 155–162.
  6. Wang Y., Zhu J., DeLuca H.F. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2012; 523: 123–133.
  7. Costa J.L., Eijk P.P., van de Wiel M.A., ten Berge D., Schmitt F., Narvaez C.J., Welsh J., Ylstra B. Anti-proliferative action of vitamin D in MCF7 is still active after siRNA-VDR knock down. BMC Genomics. 2009; 10: 499.
  8. Zehnder D., Bland R., Williams M.C., McNinch R.W., Howie A.J., Stewart P.M., Hewison M. Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001; 86: 888–894.
  9. Townsend K., Evans K.N., Campbell M.J. Colston K.W., Adams J.S., Hewison M. Biological actions of extra renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase and implications for chemoprevention and treatment. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2005; 97: 103–109.
  10. James S.Y., Mackay A.G., Colston K.W. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1996; 58:395–401.
  11. Chiang K.C., Yeh C.N, Chen S.C., Shen S.C., Hsu J.T., Yeh T.S. MART-10, a New Generation of Vitamin D Analog, is More Potent than 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Inhibiting Cell Proliferation and Inducing Apoptosis in ER+ MCF–7 Breast Cancer Cells. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2012; 2012: 310872.
  12. Zheng W., Tayyari F., Gowda G.A., Raftery D., McLamore E.S., Shi J., Porterfield D.M., Donkin S.S., Bequette B., Teegarden D. 1, 25 Dihydroxyvitamin D Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Harveyras Transformed MCF10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2013; 138: 81–89.
  13. Krishnan A.V., Swami S., Feldman D. The Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer. Steroids. 2012; 77 (11): 1107–1112.
  14. Rossi M., McLaughlin J.K., Lagiou P., Bosetti C., Talamini R., Lipworth L., Giacosa A., Montella M., Franceschi S., Negri E., La Vecchia C. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk: a case control study in Italy. Ann. Oncol. 2009; 20 (2): 374–378.
  15. Yousef F.M., Jacobs E.T., Kang P.T., Hakim I.A., Going S., Yousef J.M., Al-Raddadi R.M., Kumosani T.A., Thomson C.A. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case control study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013; 98: 105–110.
  16. Shi L., Nechuta S., Gao Y.T., Zheng Y., Dorjgochoo T., Wu J., Q., Zheng W., Lu W., Shu X.O. Correlates of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Chinese Breast Cancer Patients. PLOS ONE. 2014; 9 (1):86467.
  17. Yao S., Zirpoli G., Bovbjerg D.H., Jandorf L., Zhao H., Sucheston L.E., Tang L., Roberts M., Ciupak G., Davis W., Hwang H., Johnson C.S., Trump D.L., McCann S.E., Ademuyiwa F., Pawlish K.S., Bandera E.V., Ambrosone C.B. Variants in the vitamin D pathway, serum levels of vitamin D and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer among African–American women: a casecontrol study. Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14: 58.
  18. Yao S., Hong C.C., McCann S.E., Zirpoli G., Quan L., Gong Z., Johnson C.S., Trump D.L., Ambrosone C.B. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status. Cancers. 2014; 6: 211–225.
  19. Blutt S.E., Polek T.C., Stewart L.V., Kattan M.W., Weigel N.L. A calcitriol analogue, EB1089, inhibits the growth of LNCaP tumors in nude mice. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 779–782.
  20. Peehl D. M., Krishnan A.V., Feldman D. Pathways mediating the growth-inhibitory actions of vitamin D in prostate cancer. J. Nutr. 2003; 133 (Suppl. 7): 2461–2469.
  21. Tseng M., Breslow R.A., De Vellis R.F., Ziegler R.G. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the national health and nutrition examination survey epidemiological follow up study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2004; 13: 71–77.
  22. Yin L., Raum E., Haug U., Arndt V., Brenner H. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies: serum vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009; 33: 435–445.
  23. Barnett C.M., Nielson C.M., Shannon J., Chan J.M., Shikany J.M., Bauer D.C., Hoffman A.R., Barrett-Connor E., Orwoll E., Beer T.M. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and risk of developing prostate cancer in older men. Cancer Causes Control. 2010; 21: 1297–1303.
  24. Park S.Y., Cooney R.V., Wilkens L.R., Murphy S.P., Henderson B.E., Kolonel L.N. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. Eur. J. Cancer. 2010; 46:932–936.
  25. Holt S.K., Kolb S., Fu R., Horst R., Feng Z., Stanford J.L. Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prostate cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37: 666–670.
  26. Nakagawa K., Sasaki Y., Kato S., Kubodera N., O. Toshio 22-Oxa 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis in lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005; 26: (6): 1044–1054.
  27. Nakagawa K., Kawaura A., Kato S., Takeda E., Okano T. 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a preventive factor in the metastasis of lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005; 26 (2): 429–440.
  28. Takata Y., Shu X.O., Yang G., Li H., Dai Q., Gao J., Cai Q., Gao Y.T., Zheng W. Calcium intake and lung cancer risk among female nonsmokers: A report from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22 (1): 50–57.
  29. Cheng T.Y., Lacroix A.Z., Beresford S.A., Goodman G.E., Thornquist M.D., Zheng Y., Chlebowski R.T., Ho G.Y., Neuhouser M.L. Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women’s Health Initiative. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013; 98: 1002–1011.
  30. Matsumura Y., Ananthaswamy H.N. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2004; 195: 298–308.
  31. Ziegler A., Jonason A.S., Leffell D.J., Simon J.A., Sharma H.W., Kimmelman J., Remington L., Jacks T., Brash D.E. Sunburn and p53 in the onset of skin cancer. Nature. 1994; 372: 773–776.
  32. Sequeira V.B., Rybchyn M.S., Tongkao-On W., Gordon-Thomson C., Malloy P.J., Nemere I., Norman A.W., Reeve V.E., Halliday G.M., Feldman D., Mason R.S. The role of the vitamin D receptor and ERp57 in photoprotection by 1α, 25-ihydroxyvitamin D3. Mol. Endocrinol. 2012; 26: 574–582.
  33. Evans S.R., Houghton A.M., Schumaker L., Brenner R.V., Buras R.R., Davoodi F., Nauta R.J., Shabahang M. Vitamin D receptor and growth inhibition by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human malignant melanoma cell lines. J. Surg. Res. 1996; 61 (1): 127–133.
  34. Hansen C.M., Madsen M.W., Arensbak B., Skak-Nielsen T., Latini S., Binderup L. Down regulation of laminin binding integrins by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human melanoma cells in vitro. Cell Adhes. Commun. 1998; 5 (2): 109–120.
  35. Essa S., Denzer N., Mahlknecht U., Klein R., Collnot E.M., Tilgen W., Reichrath J. VDR microRNA expression and epigenetic silencing of vitamin D signaling in melanoma cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2010; 121 (1–2): 110–113.
  36. Gruber B.M., Anuszewska E.L. Influence of vitamin D3 metabolites on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of adriamycin in human normal and neoplastic cells. Toxicol. in vitro. 2002; 16 (6): 663–667.
  37. Reichrath J., Rech M., Moeini M., Meese E., Tilgen W., Seifert M. In vitro comparison of the vitamin D endocrine system in 1,25 (OH) 2D3-responsive and resistant melanoma cells. Cancer Biol. Ther. 2007; 6 (1): 48–55.
  38. Song E.J., Gordon-Thomson C., Cole L., Stern H., Halliday G.M., Damian D.L. Reeve V.E., Mason R.S. 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (3) reduces several types of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to photoprotection. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2012; 136: 131–138.
  39. Bahar-Shany K., Ravid A., Koren R. Upregulation of MMP-9 production by TNF alpha in keratinocytes and its attenuation by vitamin D. J. Cell Physiol. 2010; 222: 729–737.
  40. Schwartz G.G., Eads D., Rao A., Cramer S.D., Willingham M.C., Chen T.C., Jamieson D.P., Wang L., Burnstein K.L., Holick M.F., Koumenis C. Pancreatic cancer cells express 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alphahydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Carcinogenesis. 2004; 25 (6): 1015–1026.
  41. Kawa S., Nikaido T., Aoki Y., Zhai Y., Kumagai T., Furihata K., Fujii S., Kiyosawa K. Vitamin D analogues up regulate p21 and p27 during growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Brit. J. Cancer. 1997; 76: 884–889.
  42. Schwartz G.G., Eads D., Naczki C., Northrup S., Chen T., Koumenis C. 19-nor-1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (paricalcitol) inhibits the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol. Ther. 2008; 7 (3): 430–436.
  43. Boscoe F.P., Schymura M.J. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002. BMC Cancer. 2006; 6: 264.
  44. Kinoshita S., Wagatsuma Y., Okada M. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan. Int. J. Health Geogr. 2007; 6: 34.
  45. Zablotska L.B., Gong Z., Wang F., Holly E.A., Bracci P.M. Vitamin D, calcium, and retinol intake, and pancreatic cancer in a population based case control study in the San Francisco Bay area. Cancer Causes Control. 2011; 22 (1): 91–100.
  46. Skinner H.G., Michaud D.S., Giovannucci E. Willett W.C., Colditz G.A., Fuchs C.S. Vitamin D intake and the risk for pancreatic cancer in two cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15 (9): 1688–1695.
  47. Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Vieth R., Azad A., Pietinen P, Taylor P.R., Virtamo J., Albanes D. A prospective nested case control study of vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk in male smokers. Cancer Res. 2006; 66 (20): 10213–10219.
  48. Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Hayes R.B., Horst R.L., Anderson K.E., Hollis B.W., Silverman D.T. Serum vitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian screening trial. Cancer Res. 2009; 69 (4): 1439–1447.
  49. Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Jacobs E.J., Arslan A.A., Qi D., Patel A.V., Helzlsouer K.J., Weinstein S.J., McCullough M.L., Purdue M.P., Shu X.O., Snyder K., Virtamo J., Wilkins L.R., Yu K, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A., Zheng W., Albanes D., Cai Q., Harvey C., Hayes R., Clipp S., Horst R.L., Irish L., Koenig K., Le Marchand L., Kolonel L.N. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2010; 172 (1): 81–93.
  50. Garland C.F., Garland F.C. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int. J. Epidemiol. 1980; 9: 65–71.
  51. Garland C.F., Comstock G.W., Garland F.C., Helsing K.J., Shaw E.K. Gorham E.D. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colon cancer: eight year prospective study. Lancet. 1989; 2: 1176–1178.
  52. Freedman D.M., Looker A.C., Chang S.C., Graubard B.I. Prospective study of serum vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 1594–1602.
  53. Gandini S., Boniol M., Haukka J., Byrnes G., Cox B., Sneyd M.J., Mullie P., Autier P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int. J Cancer. 2011; 128: 1414–1424.
  54. Atoum M.F., Tchoporyan M.N. Association between Circulating Vitamin D, the Taq1 Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk among Jordanians. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2014; 15: 7337–7341.
  55. Weinstein S.J., Yu K., Horst R.L., Ashby J., Virtamo J., Albanes D. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer in Finnish Men. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2011; 173: 499–508.
  56. Chung M., Lee J., Terasawa T., Lau J., Trikalinos T.A. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta–analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann. Intern. Med. 2011; 155: 827–838.
  57. Evans S.R., Soldatenkov V., Shchepotin E.B., Bogrash E., Shchepotin I.B. Novel 19-nor-hexafluoride vitamin D3 analog (Ro 25-6760) inhibits human colon cancer in vitro via apoptosis. Int. J. Oncol. 1999; 14: 979–985.
  58. Shah S., Islam M.N., Dakshanamurthy S., Rizvi I., Rao M., Herrell R., Zinser G., Valrance M., Aranda A., Moras D., Norman A., Welsh J., Byers S.W. The molecular basis of vitamin D receptor and b-catenin cross regulation. Molecular Cell. 2006; 21: 799–809.
  59. Palmer H.G., Gonza´lez-Sancho J.M., Espada J., Berciano M.T., Puig I., Baulida J., Quintanilla M., Cano A., Garcı´a de Herreros A., Lafarga M., Muñoz A. Vitamin D3 promotes the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells by the induction of E-cadherin and the inhibition of b-catenin signaling. J. Cell Biol. 2001; 154; 369–387.
  60. Kaler P., Augenlicht L., Klampfer L. Macrophagederived IL-1b stimulates Wnt signaling and growth of colon cancer cells: a crosstalk interrupted by vitamin D3. Oncogene. 2009; 28: 3892–3902.
  61. Dıaz G.D., Paraskeva C., Thomas M.G., Binderup L., Hague A. Apoptosis is induced by the active metabolite of vitamin D3 and its analogue EB1089 in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells: possible implications for prevention and therapy. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 2304–2312.
  62. Barnes J.D., Arhel N.J., Lee S.S., Sharp A., Al-Okail M., Packham G., Hague A., Paraskeva C., Williams A.C. Nuclear BAG-1
  63. expression inhibits apoptosis in colorectal adenoma derived epithelial cells. Apoptosis. 2005; 10: 301–311.
  64. Padi S.K., Zhang Q., Rustum Y.M., Morrison C., Guo B. MicroRNA-627 Mediates the Epigenetic Mechanisms of Vitamin D to Suppress Proliferation of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Growth of Xenograft Tumors in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2013; 145 (2): 437–446.
  65. Trivedi D.P., Doll R., Khaw K.T. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ. 2003; 326: 469.
  66. Wactawski-Wende J., Kotchen J.M., Anderson G.L., Assaf A.R., Brunner R.L., O’Sullivan M.J., Margolis K.L. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 354: 684–696.
  67. Holt P.R., Bresalier R.S., Ma C.K., Liu K.F., Lipkin M., Byrd J.C., Yang K. Calcium plus vitamin D alters preneoplastic features of colorectal adenomas and rectal mucosa. Cancer. 2006; 106: 287–296.
  68. Fedirko V., Bostick R.M., Flanders W.D., Long Q., Shaukat A., Rutherford R.E., Daniel C.R., Cohen V., Dash C. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on markers of apoptosis in normal colon mucosa: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Cancer Prev. Res. 2009; 2: 213–223.
  69. Akhter J., Lu Y., Finlay I., Pourgholami M.H., Morris D.L. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues, EB1089 and CB1093, profoundly inhibit the in vitro proliferation of the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. ANZ J. Surg. 2001; 71 (7): 414–417.
  70. Ghous Z., Akhter J., Pourgholami M.H., Morris D.L. Inhibition of hepatocellular cancer by EB1089: in vitro and in vivo study. Anticancer Res. 2008; 28 (6A): 3757–3761.
  71. Chiang K.C., Yeh C.N., Chen H.Y., Lee J.M., Juang H.H., Chen M.F., Takano M., Kittaka A., Chen T.C. 19-nor-2alpha (3-hydroxypropyl)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(MART-10) is a potent cell growth regulator with enhanced chemotherapeutic potency in liver cancer cells. Steroids. 2011; 76 (13):1513–1519.
  72. Luo W., Chen Y., Liu M., Du K., Zheng G., Cai T., Zhang W., Zhao F., Yao T., Yang R., Chen J. EB1089 induces Skp2 dependent p27 accumulation, leading to cell growth inhibition and cell cycle G1 phase arrest in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Invest. 2009; 27 (1): 29–37.
  73. Dalhoff K., Dancey J., Astrup L., Skovsgaard T., Hamberg K.J., Lofts F.J., Rosmorduc O., Erlinger S., Bach Hansen J., Steward W.P., Skov T., Burcharth F., Evans T.R. A Phase II study of the vitamin D analogue Seocalcitol in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. Brit. J. Cancer. 2003; 89 (2):252–257.
  74. Wang Q.M., Jones J.B., Studzinski G.P. Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27 as a mediator of the G1–S phase block induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HL60 cells. Cancer Res. 1996; 56:264–267.
  75. Elstner E., Linker-Israeli M., Umiel T. Le J., Grillier I., Said J., Shintaku I.P., Krajewski S., Reed J.C., Binderup L., Koeffler H.P. Combination of a potent 20-epi-vitamin D3 analogue (KH 1060) with 9-cisretinoic acid irreversibly inhibits clonal growth, decreases bcl-2 expression, and induces apoptosis in HL-60 leukemic cells. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 3570–3576.
  76. Kumagai T., Shih L.Y., Hughes S.V., Desmond J.C., O’Kelly J., Hewison M., Koeffler H.P. 19-nor-1,25 (OH) 2D2 (a Novel, Noncalcemic Vitamin D Analogue), Combined with Arsenic Trioxide, Has Potent Antitumor Activity against Myeloid Leukemia. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 2488–2497.
  77. Fujioka T., Suzuki Y., Okamoto T., Mastushita N., Hasegawa M., Omori S. Prevention of renal cell carcinoma by active vitamin D3. World J. Surg. 2000; 24: 1205–1210.
  78. Lambert J.R., Eddy V.J., Young C.D., Persons K.S., Sarkar S., Kelly J.A., Genova E., Lucia M.S., Faller D.V., Ray R. A vitamin D receptor alkylating derivative of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits growth of human kidney cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila). 2010; 3, 1596–1607.
  79. Jiang F., Bao J., Li P., Nicosia S.V., Bai W. Induction of ovarian cancer cell apoptosis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 through the down regulation of telomerase. J. Biol. Chem. 2004; 279 (51):53213–53221.



Abstract: 1008

PDF (Russian): 476

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...



Copyright (c) 2015 Russian academy of sciences

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies