The History of the Global Spread of the Causative Agent of Anthrax Based on the Whole Genome Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus anthracis

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The review presents current data on the history of distribution, phylogeography, population structure, features of the evolution of the causative agent of anthrax. The results of foreign publications and our own original materials on the territorial distribution of genetic lines of Bacillus anthracis, the genetic relationship of variants isolated in Russia and abroad, the ways of distribution of variants of the pathogen in Russia and neighboring countries summarized. Based on the limited possibilities of spreading anthrax infection with sick animals and the high stability of pathogen spores in the environment, the leading role of human activity in the spread of B. anthracis shown. The probable ways of spread of the pathogen over long distances described, determined by the historical migration of people, the routes of conquerors, trade routes and the import of livestock products. The spread of the causative agent of anthrax on the territory of the Russian Federation began with Eastern Siberia and through the south of Siberia reached the European part of the Russian Federation, including the North Caucasus.

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About the authors

Gennadii G. Onishchenko

The Russian Academy of Education; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0135-7258
SPIN-code: 8535-6930

MD, PhD, Professor, Academician of the RAS

Russian Federation, Moscow; Moscow

Alexandr N. Kulichenko

Stavropol Plague Control Research Institute

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9362-3949
SPIN-code: 5030-2635

MD, PhD, Professor, Academician of the RAS

Russian Federation, 13–15, Sovetskaya str., 355035, Stavropol

Evgenii I. Eremenko

Stavropol Plague Control Research Institute

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1117-1185
SPIN-code: 3966-6884

MD, PhD, Professor

Russian Federation, 13–15, Sovetskaya str., 355035, Stavropol

Sergey V. Pisarenko

Stavropol Plague Control Research Institute

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6458-6790
SPIN-code: 7749-6935

PhD in Chemical Sciences

Russian Federation, 13–15, Sovetskaya str., 355035, Stavropol


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