Functional Activity of the Retina and Visual Evoked Cortical Potentials in Simulation the Factors of Space Flight in Conditions of Four Month Isolation in a Hermetic Object with Artificial Habitat

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Abstract

Background. The artificial environment of confined space causes a decrease in the functional reserve of the central nervous system and can affect human health and the success of space missions. In solving this problem, the urgent task is to study adaptation mechanisms that adapt the functioning of the visual sensory system to the conditions of the extreme environment. Purpose — to obtain new objective data on the alterations in the functional activity of the visual system during prolonged stay of a person in extreme environmental conditions. Methods. Before and after a 4-month isolation experiment simulating a flight to the moon, an electrophysiological study was conducted of six practically healthy crew members with registration of a set of electroretinograms (ERG) and pattern-reversal visual evoked cortical potentials (VEP) according to the ISCEV standards. In dynamics, corrected monocular visual acuity (MVA) was assessed on board. Results. After the end of the experiment, on average for the group, there were no statistically significant changes in the MVA and functional activity of the retina and visual cortex compared with the initial data. However, individual changes on the part of the flicker ERG and reduction of VEP to small patterns stimulating the parvocellular channel of the visual system were revealed in three testers. These changes were associated with higher visually intense work and physical activity of these crew members, and with an individual reaction to sleep deprivation of pilots with increased responsibility. Conclusion. Four-month isolation with imitation of a space mission did not cause significant changes in the functional activity of the retina and visual pathways in healthy crew members. Individual differences of VEP-responses of the parvocellular visual system were revealed, which can reflect a high level of psychophysiological adaptation and stress resistance in physically active crew members.

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About the authors

Vladimir V. Neroev

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: secr@igb.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8480-0894
SPIN-code: 5214-4134
https://igb.ru/about/podrazdeleniya-instituta/12-o-nmits/podrazdeleniya-instituta/64-administratsiya-instituta

MD, PhD, Professor, Academician of the RAS

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Marina V. Zueva

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: visionlab@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0161-5010
SPIN-code: 8838-3997
https://igb.ru/about/podrazdeleniya-instituta/otdel-klinicheskoj-fiziologii-zreniya-im-s-v-kravkova

PhD in Biology, Professor

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Irina V. Tsapenko

Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: sunvision@mail.ru
https://igb.ru/about/podrazdeleniya-instituta/otdel-klinicheskoj-fiziologii-zreniya-im-s-v-kravkova

PhD in Biology, Senior Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Yuri A. Bubeev

State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation — Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS

Email: aviamed@inbox.ru
SPIN-code: 6548-0280

MD, PhD, Professor

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Olga M. Manko

State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation — Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS

Email: olgamanko@list.ru
SPIN-code: 6090-4239

MD, PhD, Leading Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Alexandr E. Smoleevskiy

State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation — Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS

Email: smoll13@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 2993-6644

MD, PhD, Senior Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Akhmed M. Aleskerov

State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation — Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS

Email: a.m.aleskerov@mail.ru

MD, Junior Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

Maria A. Gracheva

Institute for Information Transmission Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Kharkevich Institute)

Author for correspondence.
Email: mg.iitp@gmail.com
SPIN-code: 1164-7489

PhD in Biology, Senior Researcher

Russian Federation, 14/19, Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya st, Moscow, 105062

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