Visual Acuity Charts: Analytical Review, Basic Terms

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Abstract


The review is dedicated to the visual acuity charts for assessment vision at far. The first part of the review provides definitions of basic terms: optotypes, step of the chart (change in the sign size from line to line), chart design; also, termination rules for measurement procedure and the main measuring units (logMAR, decimal units) are discussed. The second part of the paper provides historical review of charts development, starting from the beginning of the XIX century. The most wide spread visual acuity charts are described: Snellen chart, Sivtsev-Golovin chart, ETDRS chart, Lea chart, etc. The features of their structure and the optotypes used are discussed, taking into account their usefulness, practicality and feasibility in children vision assessment. Charts compliance with the standard in view of recommendations about optotypes properties and optotypes distribution on the chart field are reviewed. A special attention is drawn to the modern tendencies in optotypes development in order to obtain better repeatability of visual acuity assessment.


Maria A. Gracheva

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: mg.iitp@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0196-148X

Russian Federation

PhD.

Moscow.

SPIN-код: 1164-7489

Anna A. Kazakova

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences; Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: AnneKazakova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5184-5316

Russian Federation

MD.

19 bld 1, Bolshoy Karetniy pereulok, 127051 Moscow; tel.: +7 (495) 536-92-92.

SPIN-код: 2648-5849

Dmitry F. Pokrovskiy

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: dfpokrovskiy@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5475-0398

Russian Federation

MD, PhD, assistant professor.

Moscow.

SPIN-код: 6487-5793

Igor B. Medvedev

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: glazmed@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9155-8736

Russian Federation

MD, PhD, Professor.

Moscow.

SPIN-код: 5779-2406

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