Visual Acuity Charts: Analytical Review, Basic Terms

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The review is dedicated to the visual acuity charts for assessment vision at far. The first part of the review provides definitions of basic terms:
optotypes, step of the chart (change in the sign size from line to line), chart design; also, termination rules for measurement procedure and the main
measuring units (logMAR, decimal units) are discussed. The second part of the paper provides historical review of charts development, starting
from the beginning of the XIX century. The most wide spread visual acuity charts are described: Snellen chart, Sivtsev-Golovin chart, ETDRS
chart, Lea chart, etc. The features of their structure and the optotypes used are discussed, taking into account their usefulness, practicality and
feasibility in children vision assessment. Charts compliance with the standard in view of recommendations about optotypes properties and optotypes
distribution on the chart field are reviewed. A special attention is drawn to the modern tendencies in optotypes development in order to obtain better
repeatability of visual acuity assessment.

Maria A. Gracheva

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0196-148X
SPIN-code: 1164-7489

Russian Federation, Moscow


Anna A. Kazakova

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences; Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5184-5316
SPIN-code: 2648-5849

Russian Federation, 19 bld 1, Bolshoy Karetniy pereulok, 127051 Moscow


Dmitry F. Pokrovskiy

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5475-0398
SPIN-code: 6487-5793

Russian Federation, Moscow

MD, PhD, assistant professor


Igor B. Medvedev

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9155-8736
SPIN-code: 5779-2406

Russian Federation, Moscow

MD, PhD, Professor


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