Visual Acuity Charts: Analytical Review, Basic Terms

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Abstract


Bronchial asthma (BA) and obesity are one of the major modern problem, requiring the development of an effective therapeutic strategy. The frequent combination of these diseases in one patient indicates the general pathophysiological mechanisms and future study for targeted drug exposure are needed. The endocannabinoid system is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and can be considered as a general mechanism and a potential therapeutic target in asthma and obesity, the receptors of the system are expressed in many central and peripheral tissues. This signal system modulates the functions of the autonomic nervous system, immune system and microcirculation, plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance, metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. The main research aimed at studying the functioning of this system was focused on neurology and psychiatry, while numerous scientific data demonstrate the importance of the participation of this system in the pathogenesis of other diseases. In particular, this system is involved in the mechanisms of obesity. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of asthma is actively studied. The wide prevalence of the endocannabinoid signaling system and its regulatory role in the body opens up prospects for therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthma and obesity, as well as the possible phenotype of asthma, combined with obesity. The review is devoted to modern ideas about endocannabinoids, their receptors, mechanisms of action and their role in the pathophysiology of asthma and obesity. The therapeutic prospects and difficulties associated with the use of endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids in medicine are discussed.


Maria A. Gracheva

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: mg.iitp@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0196-148X
SPIN-code: 1164-7489

Russian Federation, Moscow

PhD

Anna A. Kazakova

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) Russian Academy of Sciences; Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: AnneKazakova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5184-5316
SPIN-code: 2648-5849

Russian Federation, 19 bld 1, Bolshoy Karetniy pereulok, 127051 Moscow

MD

Dmitry F. Pokrovskiy

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: dfpokrovskiy@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5475-0398
SPIN-code: 6487-5793

Russian Federation, Moscow

MD, PhD, assistant professor

 

Igor B. Medvedev

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: glazmed@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9155-8736
SPIN-code: 5779-2406

Russian Federation, Moscow

MD, PhD, Professor

 

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