Oncolytic Viruses As Immunotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Malignant Tumors

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Abstract


Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are novel and rapidly developing class of therapeutic agents for combating cancer, which can effectively infect and destroy tumor cells, leaving healthy tissues intact. Many viruses have a natural antitumor activity which causes cytolysis of cancer cells due to direct pathogenic action. Along with non-immunogenic cell death, oncolytic viruses have been shown to be capable of inducing immunogenic cancer cell death (necrosis, pyroptosis, etc.) accompanied by the release of OV-lysed tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Releasing DAMPs and TAAs, in its turn, leads to the activation of adaptive antitumor immunity. In order to further enhance the antitumor immunity, OVs have been armed with immunostimulatory transgenes such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), type I interferons, interleukins (IL-2, 12, 15), costimulatory ligands (CD40, CD80), tumor antigens («prime-boost» vaccination), which further enhances the safety and effectiveness of oncolytic virotherapy. Preliminary results of randomized clinical trials of different approaches of oncolytic virotherapies in combination with immunotherapy confirm their high efficacy. However, there are some drawbacks, which necessitates their further study.


Alexander I. Glukhov

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University; M.V. Lovonosov Moscow State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: aiglukhov1958@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7371-1183

Russian Federation

PhD, professor.

119991, 8-2 Trubetskaya str., Moscow.

SPIN-код: 3926-8485

Dmitry A. Sivokhin

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Email: d100s001@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7341-1167

Russian Federation SPIN-код: 8362-3570

Daria A. Seryak

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Email: daria.seriak@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3884-9256

Russian Federation SPIN-код: 8395-4172

Tatyana S. Rodionova

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Email: tata92176@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0336-3459

Russian Federation SPIN-код: 5948-8248

Margarita I. Kamynina

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Email: margaret.kamynina@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8093-8151

Russian Federation SPIN-код: 9756-5856

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