Vol 68, No 2 (2013)

EDITORIAL
RESULTS OF THE FEDERAL (NATIONAL) PROJECT FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION PATIENTS IN RUSSIA FROM 2002–2012 YEARS
Chazova I.E., Oshchepkova E.V.

Abstract

The analysis of measures efficiency for prevention by essential hypertension (EH) in Russian Federation within the space of 2002–2012 years was realized. Those measures were carrying out Federal (National) Project and primary activity of the medical and scientific institutions under the leadership Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex. The basic result was decrease in cardiovascular disease death rate starting with 2004 year. The most pronounced significant changes were found in death rate from the cerebrovascular diseases. From 2003 to 2012, the annual cerebrovascular disease death rate decreased in 1,5 times (in 2003 — 339,9 by 100 thousands, to compare with 2012 — 224,1 by 100 thousands). Moreover, in 2012 the fatal stroke death rate was decreased on 114,8 thousands (to compare with 2004). Decrease of cardiovascular disease death rate is achieved from: early revealing of essential hypertension pts; development and introduction in practical public health of new methods of prevention («Schools of Health»), adequate diagnostic and treatment of essential hypertension patients; increase of an educational level by cardiology in polyclinics, also use by the government of special purposes for Cardiovascular disease death rate decrease.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):4-11
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HYGIENE: CURRENT ISSUES
QUANTIFYING THE DYNAMICS OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PERSONS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO MERCURY VAPOR: A REMOTE PERIOD OF INTOXICATION
D'yakovich M.P., Katamanova E.V., Kazakova P.V.

Abstract

The article presents the results of the dynamic clinical observation for persons suffered from occupational chronic mercury intoxication in the remote post-exposure period of the disease. The estimation of the dynamics of syndrome manifestations of chronic mercury intoxication and co-morbidity are presented. The important role of mercury exposure load as a predictor of deterioration of actual health of the patients in the remote period of intoxication is demonstrated.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):12-17
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TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NANODISPERSED MANGANESE OXIDE (III, IV) EFFECT ON MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF DIFFERENT TISSUES UNDER EXPERIMENT
Zaitseva N.V., Zemlyanova M.A., Zvezdin V.N., Lebedinskaya O.V., Melekhin S.V., Saenko E.V., Makhmudov R.R.

Abstract

The study of morphological features of tissue organs of experimental animals after a single intragastric administration of an aqueous suspension nanodis-dispersed manganese (III, IV) at doses of 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/kg showed complex of morphological changes in the form of circulatory disorders up to hemostasis and bleeding which lead to changes in the structure of organs, enhanced apoptosis, activation of macrophage system by proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis of degradation products of cells, hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue of immune system; development of histiocytic infiltrates in parenchymal organs and central nervous system. With the introduction of microsized analogues in the same doses of the morphological changes in the circulatory system, macrophage system and immune organs found predominantly in a dose of 5000 mg/kg. Changes were less significant and were presented as activation of macrophages in the liver in the form of activation of Kupffer cells, proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, lymph histiocytic infiltrates in the liver, kidney, medium size.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):18-23
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CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY: CURRENT ISSUES
PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING AORTIC-ILIAC RECONSTRUCTIONS BY CORRECTION OF INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTOXEMIA
Medvedeva E.A., Shchukin Y.V., Seleznev E.I.

Abstract

There were presented the results of examination and treatment of 130 patients with atherosclerosis. Objective is to study the role of atorvastatin in correction of inflammation, endotoxemia and prevention of cardiovascular complications in patients with atherosclerosis undergoing aorto-iliac reconstruction. There were observed initial and postoperative activation of inflammation, endotoxemia in patients with multifocal atherosclerosis. We found that short-term therapy with atorvastatin 60 mg per day had a significant advantage over low-dose in correction of pre- and postoperative endogenous inflammation, endotoxemia and prevention of cardiac events after aorto-iliac reconstruction.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):24-28
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ENDOCRINOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
HORMONAL-METABOLIC PATTERN OF POSTMENOPAUSAL FEMALES WITH NEW ONSET OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2: THE ROLE OF CANCER AND HEREDITARY PREDISPOSITION TO DIABETES
Berstein L.M., Vasil’ev D.A., Poroshina T.E., Boyarkina M.P., Tsyrlina E.V.

Abstract

85 females were studied, 35 females had new onset of diabetes (DM2) and in 50 women DM2 was associated with recently diagnosed cancer (C+DM2). Group C+DM2 was characterized by higher levels of body mass index, insulinemia, estradiolemia, interleukin 6 in serum, and glyoxalase I activity in mononuclears. At the same time  patients in C+DM2 group who had familial predisposition to DM2 were characterized by lower body mass index, body fat content, waist circumference, insulinemia, serum interleukin 6, viscosity of erythrocyte membranes and percent of comets in mononuclears in comparison with patients without familial predisposition to DM2. These trends were mostly opposite to the data of subgroups comparison (with or without relatives with DM2) in females with DM2 without cancer. The conclusion is made that the hereditary load with DM2 is differently realized in diabetics with higher or lower predisposition to cancer that deserves further study.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):29-34
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ROLE OF CIRCULATING ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Martynov S.A., Shestakova M.V., Kutyrina I.M., Il’in A.V., Arbuzova M.I., Dedov I.I.

Abstract

This original article contains the authors own data on homeostasis of angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor — VEGF, angiopoietin 1 and 2 — Ang-1, Ang-2) in diabetic kidney disease. The aims of study were evaluation of alteration on serum concentration of circulating VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2, and of their association with markers of renal damage (albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate) and anemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. We studied 78 patients type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Among this group 37 patients had chronic kidney disease. The serum level of VEGF was elevated in T1DM patients and was associated with degree of proteinuria. The serum concentration of Ang-2 was higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (T1DM and T2DM), renal failure (T1DM), proteinuria and anemia (T2DM). Ang-2 strongly associated with albuminuria (T1DM and T2DM), glomerular filtration rate (T1DM) and hemoglobin (T2DM). Obtained results demonstrate that levels of VEGF and Ang-2 (but not Ang-1) are raised in patients with diabetic kidney disease and associated with markers of renal damage and anemia. These data indicate the presence of the disturbance of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF, Ang-2) homeostasis and activity in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):35-42
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FUNDAMENTAL BASES OF SEARCH OF MEDICINES FOR THERAPY OF A DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2
Spasov A.A., Petrov V.I., Cheplyaeva N.I., Lenskaya K.V.

Abstract

In the presented review the data on searching for new drugs for diabetes mellitus treatment are analyzed. These drugs are used for metabolic disorder correction leading to hyperglycemia: β-cells dysfunction, peripheral insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose output.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):43-49
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PHYSIOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
INTRAORGANIC AND INTRATISSUE MECHANISMS OF PROTECTIVE ACTION OF ACTIVATED KUPFFER CELLS ON HEPATOCYTES
Elbakidze G.M., Medentsev A.G.

Abstract

Endotoxine activated Kupffer cells release into the intercellular space several mediators which act directly on hepatocytes as well as via stellet cells. In both cases Kupffer cells downregulate hepatocytes as a part of paracrine system. However, downregulated part of liver parenchyma might be extended by several mechanisms. The first one is release of vasoconstrictors from activated Kupffer cells which stimulate stellet cells contraction. This effect may also be achieved by formation of hypermetabolic focuses by Kupffer cells mediators with further activation of hepatocyte–hepatocyte interactions based on the principle of cell competition for oxygen in the intercellular space. Regulatory influence of activated Kupffer cells may be spread in liver parenchyma with participation of the mechanism of intratissue hepatocyte–hepatocyte interactions which also realize tissue stress reaction.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):50-55
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SHORT MESSAGES
AUTOCHTHONOUS PROBIOTICS IN PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF A HUMAN IN THE ALTERED HABITATS
Il'in V.K., Suvorov A.N., Kiryukhina N.V., Usanova N.A., Starkova L.V., Boyarintsev V.V., Karaseva A.B.

Abstract

Dysbiotic shifts in intestinal and pharyngeal microflora were studied in 22 normal volunteers in 9-, 14-, 105- and 520-d chamber experiments simulating some of the spaceflight factors. Two preparations were administered to prevent pharyngeal and intestinal dysbiosis: oral dry probiotic based on indigenous intestinal Enterococci and topical collagen-immobilized Lactobacterin based on indigenous intestinal Lactobacilli. Topical autoprobiotic lactobacterin reduced the growth of opportunistic pathogens in the throat during the experiments. Oral autoprobiotic based on Enterococci reduced the content of intestinal opportunistic pathogens, supporting the high level of protecting microflora. Most of autostrains are free from pathogenicity factors, nevertheless, implementation of genetic testing of indigenous strains are reasonable.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):56-62
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CARCINOGENICITY OF ACRYLONITRILE AND EVALUATION OF APPROACHES TO PATHOGENETIC CORRECTION OF ACRYLATE TOXICITY AND ANTITUMOROGENIC ANTRACYCLINE DOXORUBICI TOXICITY DURING CHEMOTHERAPY
Tarskikh M.M., Shumbasov M.A., Kolesnikov S.I.

Abstract

Statistical analysis within the 20-year period showed that approximately 49% of workers who were exposed to widespread industrial poison acrylonitrile subsequently died from malignancy of different localization. The conducted experimental investigations demonstrated that acrylonitrile with the subacute intoxication of animals, the anti-tumor antibiotic doxorubicin, their combination, interwoven tumor and tumor developed against the background the introduction of acrylate and subsequent treatment doxorubicin led to onset of free-radical reactions. These reactions by themselves might stimulate development of malignancy. This fact confirms the need for antioxidant tracking of chemotherapy of tumors in the similar clinical cases.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(2):63-66
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