Vol 68, No 5 (2013)

EDITORIAL
INTERNATIONAL CRITERIA OF THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF GROUPS AND INDIVIDUAL SCIENTISTS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
Archakov A.I., Karpova E.A., Ponomarenko E.A.
Abstract

Сomparison data on results of efficiency of the research institutes (RI) of RAMS by international and own evaluation criteria of the research activity of above institutions in 2011 are presented. The consistency of international and own evaluation results was observed in 21RI (39%), the institutions-leaders found, and in 13 RI (24%) — less effective institutions. Thus, the use of own evaluation criteria only complicates the unbiased assessment of the Russia’s position in the international scientific rating.

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):4-9
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CELL TRANSPLANTOLOGY AND TISSUE ENGINEERING: CURRENT ISSUES
METHODS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING OF BONE TISSUE IN MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Lyundup A.V., Medvedev Y.A., Balasanova K.V., Zolopup N.M., Brodskaya S.B., Elistratov P.A.
Abstract

For the last decade many experimental and clinical data about the study and application of regenerative medicine methods in the maxillofacial surgery were accumulated. For better bone regeneration mesenchymal stem cells are often used. Considering the general wariness of researchers in some aspects of cell therapy, methods of study of mesenchymal stem cells and the technologies of its clinical application are constantly being upgraded. This review will consider methods of tissue engineering used to regenerate bone tissue defects in maxillofacial surgery.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):10-15
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ONCOLOGY: CURRENT ISSUES
CLINICAL PROSPECTS OF TUMOR-ASSOCIATED PROTEASES AND THEIR TISSUE INHIBITORS INVESTIGATION IN ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS
Gershtein E.S., Kushlinskii N.E.
Abstract

Review of authors’ results and the most representative literature data on the role of tumor-associated proteolitic systems involved in invasion, metastasizing and angiogenic processes in diagnostics and prognosis in various oncologic diseases is presented in this paper. The main attention is paid to the key matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) as well as to the plasminogen activation system components (uPA, PAI-1) study in tumor tissues and peripheral blood. Personal results demonstrated an increase of most MMPs, uPA and PAI-1 expression in the tumors of 7090% patients with various neoplasms as compared to histologically unchanged adjacent tissues. MMP-7 was shown to be a promising serologic marker of ovarian and colorectal cancer (CRC): its sensitivity at 70% specificity level comprised about 70% in both diseases. The greatest clinical interest should be paid to the implication of tumor-associated proteases as prognostic factors. Thus, results of 5-years monitoring have demonstrated that high preoperative serum MMP-7 and TIMP-1 levels were independent unfavorable prognostic factors for CRC and univariate analysis revealed unfavorable prognostic role of high tumor MMP-7 in patients with disseminated process. Tumor PAI-1 level was shown to be a valuable prognostic factor for stage III CRC. In the final part of the review possibilities and prospects of tumor-associated proteases usage as targets for specific molecular directed therapy are discussed.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):16-27
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NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: MORPHOLOGIC SPECTRUM AND CELL PROLIFERATION (KI67 INDEX)
Delektorskaya V.V., Kushlinskii N.E.
Abstract

This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts of different types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):28-37
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THYROID CANCER: LESSONS OF CHERNOBYL AND PROGNOSIS FOR FUKUSHIMA
Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F.
Abstract

Results of epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer incidence in Russia following the Chernobyl accident are presented in the article. Child population in territories contaminated with radionuclides who got thyroid dose from incorporated 131I above 100–150 mGy, should be referred to a group at radiation risk. Prognostic estimates of increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the population living in close vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP were made with account for the Chernobyl data and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):38-44
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DEVELOPMENT OF A DIAGNOSTIC TEST SYSTEM FOR EARLY NON-INVASIVE DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER BASED ON PCA3 MRNA LEVELS IN URINE SEDIMENT USING QUANTITATIVE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QRT-PCR)
Pavlov K.A., Shkoporov A.N., Khokhlova E.V., Korchagina A.A., Sidorenkov A.V., Grigor'ev M.E., Pushkar' D.Y., Chekhonin V.P.
Abstract

The wide introduction of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) determination into clinical practice has resulted in a larger number of prostate biopsies, while the lower age threshold for PSA has led to a larger number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. Hence, there is a need for new biomarkers that can detect prostate cancer. РCА3 is a noncoding messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that is expressed exclusively in prostate cells.  The aim of the study  has been to develop a diagnostic test system for early non-invasive detection of prostate cancer based on PCA3 mRNA levels in urine sediment using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). As part of the study, a laboratory diagnostic test system prototype has been designed, an application methodology has been developed and specificity and sensitivity data of the method has been assessed. The diagnostic system has demonstrated its ability to detect significantly elevated levels of PCA 3/ KLK 3 in samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared with those from healthy men. The findings have shown relatively high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and negative-predictive values for an early non-invasive screening of prostate cancer

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):45-51
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SHORT MESSAGES
NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SULFATED POLYSACCHARIDES FROM SEAWEED
Besednova N.N., Somova L.M., Gulyaev S.A., Zaporozhets T.S.
Abstract

Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) occupy a significant place in the structure of disease of the elderly, which dictates the need to find new and effective treatment and prevention of this pathology. At the heart of NDD development  is a violation of the metabolism and the conformational change of cellular proteins with subsequent accumulation and aggregation of their in  certain groups of neurons. The immediate cause of the death of the affected neurons in NDD is initiated by intracellular proteins apoptosis, during which a large number of neurotransmitter glutamate is released. The consequence of an imbalance in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters are related  the memory impairment, motor coordination and cognitive abilities of human. Based on the analysis of the extensive literature domestic and predominantly foreign authors of the last decade  the modern data on the effect of sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of algae in vivo and in vitro in degenerative processes of the nervous system. Found that due to its multi-point impact,   SPS have on the body antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-toxic effects. Consequently, SPS can arrest a number  of secondary pathological effects observed in neurodegenerative diseases (oxidative stress, inflammation, the phenomenon of increased neuronal apoptosis, toxic effects etc.). Varieties of pathogenic mechanisms underlying NDD makes possible the combined use of neuroprotective compounds acting sequentially in different stages of a pathological process. Accumulated a lot of experimental evidence to assume that the SPS  may be the basis for the creation of next-generation drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):52-59
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THE STUDY OF DYNAMICS OF CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR PHENOTYPES IN THE GENERALIZED FORM OF MYASTHENIA WITH OPTIMIZED AND COMBINED TREATMENT
Drozd O.A., Efremov V.V., Romantsov M.G., Sarvilina I.V.
Abstract

The aim of the study was the research of clinical and molecular phenotypes in the generalized form of myasthenia with optimized treatment, which includes the application of basic mode of the treatment and meglumine sodium succinate, and also the combined mode of the treatment, which includes above the mentioned drugs and ozonotherapy. The most expressed improvement of indicators of the clinical and neurologic status (the elimination of motoring breakdown, eye movement disorders, the weaknesses of mimic, respiratory and chewing muscles, bulbar syndrome, the doubling in eyes and ptosis, pharyngeal violations and increase in volume of movement of eyes) was observed in the group of patients receiving the combined therapy. The reduction of the expressiveness of the defeat of the neuromotor device and the decrement of the amplitude of the various degree of M-answer in patients with myasthenia is revealed in the application of the combined therapy in the comparison with the application of the basic and optimized therapy. For the first time we have investigated the dynamics of the intensity of the expression of specific peptides and proteins in blood serum in patients with the application of basic therapy, reamberin and ozonotherapy, which have allowed to open the new mechanisms of the efficiency of the combined therapy of the disease.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):60-64
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IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTIC OF DENDRITIC CELLS IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CONDITIONS OF EXTRACT OPISTHORCHIS FELINEUS IN VITRO
Kremer E.E., Ogorodova L.M., Kirillova N.A., Khvorilova K.V., Perevozchikova T.V., Fait E.A.
Abstract

This work shows comparative characteristics of immunogenic properties of the extract of Opisthorchis felineus in different severity of asthma using antigen presenting dendritic cells in vitro. New data on the effect of Opisthorchis felineus on the expression of surface markers of dendritic cells (CD209, HLA-DR, CD83, CD86) were received. Pronounced expression of CD209, CD86 and HLA-DR on the surface of dendritic cells in mild and severe asthma compared with healthy individuals was shown. In the stimulation of dendritic cells with extract Opisthorchis felineus in vitro weakening of CD86 expression in mild and in severe asthma was found. CD86 molecule may be a regulatory factor in the co-stimulation of dendritic cells which allows us to consider it as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of allergic diseases.

 

Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences. 2013;68(5):66-70
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