Cover Page

Cite item


Prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality are steadily increasing. Causation of PC is not clearly understood; in particular, role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is still disputable. The review contains analysis of literature data on possible participation of HPV, powerful biological carcinogens, in PC genesis. PC incidence increase in persons with immunodeficiency indicates involvement of some infectious agent in the disease etiology. Several research groups communicated HPV DNA finding including that of oncogenic types in PC specimens (transrectal biopsies). There are limited data on the occurrence of oncogenic HPV 16 oncoprotein E7 in such specimens and on its unfavorable effect on disease prognosis. The successful attempt is known to transfect normal human prostate cells with oncogenic HPV DNA in vitro. Epidemiological data on associations of PC with HPV are controversial. It may result from the considered in the present review certain technical peculiarities of these studies. Сontrol for serum antibodies to HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins recognized to indicate HPV-positive tumor growth in an organism has not been performed yet in PC patients. DNA of oncogenic HPV is rather commonly found in organs adjacent to prostate — urethra, rectum, urinary bladder. In the study held in Russia on a group of healthy men examined for sexually transmitted diseases genitourinary HPV infection was found in every second person; 42% of them harbored oncogenic HPV. Possible participation of oncogenic HPV in PC genesis deserves close attention and further study.

About the authors

G. M. Volgareva

N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
доктор биологических наук, доцент, ведущий научный сотрудник лаборатории меха- низмов гибели опухолевых клеток РОНЦ им. Н.Н. Блохина Russian Federation


  1. Center M.M., Jemal A., Lortet-Tieulent J., Ward E., Ferlay J., Brawley O., Bray F. International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur. Urol. 2012; 61 (6): 1079–1092.
  2. Siegel R., Naishadham D., Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2013. Cancer J. Clin. 2013; 63: 11–30.
  3. Schröder F.H., Roobol M.J. Prostate cancer epidemic in sight? Eur. Urol. 2012; 61 (6): 1093–1095.
  4. Zaridze D.G. Profilaktika raka [Cancer Prevention]. Moscow, IMA PRESS, 2009. 222 p.
  5. Zlokachestvennye novoobrazovaniya v Rossii v 2012 godu (zabolevaemost' i smertnost'). Pod red. A.D. Kaprina, V.V. Starinskova, G.V. Petrovoi [Malignant Neoplasms in Russia in 2012 (Morbidity and Mortality). Edited by A.D. Kaprin, V.V. Starinskov, G.V. Petrova]. Moscow, FGBU MNIIOI im. P.A. Gertsena, 2014. 250 p.
  6. Hrbacek J., Urban M., Hamsikova E., Tachezy R., Eis V., Bra-bec M. Heracek J. Serum antibodies against genitourinary infectious agents in prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia patients: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2011; 3 (11): 53.
  7. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Human papillomaviruses. Lyon. 2007. Vol. 90. 689 p.
  8. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. A review of human carcinogens. Part B. Biological agents. Lyon. 2011. Vol. 100. 502 p.
  9. zur Hauzen H. Papillomaviruses — to vaccination and beyond. Biochemistry. 2008; 73 (5): 498−505.
  10. Ruijter E., van de Kaa C., Miller G., Ruiter D., Debruyne F., Schalken J. Molecular genetics and epidemiology of prostate carcinoma. Endocr. Rev. 1999; 20 (1): 22–45.
  11. Zambrano A., Kalantari M., Simoneau A., Jensen J.L., Villar-real L.P. Detection of human polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses in prostatic tissue reveals the prostate as a habitat for multiple viral infections. The Prostate. 2002; 53 (4): 263–276.
  12. Taylor M.L., Mainous A.G., Wells B.J. Prostate cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: a meta-analysis. Family Medicine. 2005; 37 (7): 506–512.
  13. Kasiske B.L., Snyder J.J., Gilbertson D.T., Wang C. Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States. Am. J. Transplant. 2004; 4 (6): 905–913.
  14. Grulich A.E., van Leeuwen M.T., Falster M.O., Vajdic C.M. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007; 370 (9581): 59–67.
  15. Collett D., Mumford L., Banner N.R., Neuberger J., Watson C. Comparison of the Incidence of Malignancy in Recipients of Different Types of Organ: A UK Registry Audit. Am. J. Transplant. 2010; 10 (8): 1889–1896.
  16. Engels E.A., Pfeiffer R.M., Fraumeni J.F. Jr., Kasiske B.L., Israni A.K., Snyder J.J., Wolfe R.A., Goodrich N.P., Bayakly A.R., Clarke C.A., Copeland G., Finch J.L., Fleissner M.L., Goodman M.T., Kahn A., Koch L., Lynch C.F., Madeleine M.M., Pawlish K., Rao C., Williams M.A., Castenson D., Curry M., Parsons R., Fant G., Lin M. Spectrum of cancer risk among US solid organ transplant recipients. JAMA. 2011, 306 (17): 1891–1901.
  17. Leiros G.J., Galliano S.R., Sember M.E., Kahn T., Schwarz E., Eiguchi K. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in prostate carcinomas of patients from Argentina. BMC Urology. 2005; 24 (5): 15.
  18. Martinez-Fierro M.L., Leach R.J., Gomez-Guerra L.S., Garza-Guajardo R., Johnson-Pais T., Beuten J., Morales-Rodriguez I.B., Hernandez-Ordonez M.A., Calderon-Cardenas G., Ortiz-Lopez R., Rivas-Estilla A.M., Ancer-Rodriguez J., Rojas-Martinez A. Identification of viral infections in the prostate and evaluation of their association with cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010; 24 (10): 326.
  19. Deschoolmeester V., Van Marck V., Baay M., Weyn C., Vermeulen P., Van Marck E., Lardon F., Fontaine V., Vermorken J.B. Detection of HPV and the role of p16INK4A overexpression as a surrogate marker for the presence of functional HPV oncoprotein E7 in colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010; 6 (10): 117.
  20. Golovina D.A., Trofimova O.B., Ermilova V.D., Matveev V.B., Volgareva G.M. Complex of molecular genetic and immunohistochemical methods for detection of human papillomavirus in the bladder cancer epithelium. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 2014; 157 (1): 70–73.
  21. Smelov V., Eklund C., Bzhalava D., Novikov A., Dillner J. Expressed prostate secretions in the study of human papillomavirus epidemiology in the male. PLOS One. 2013; 8 (6): 625–630.
  22. Pascale M., Pracella D., Barbazza R., Marongiu B., Roggero E., Bonin S., Stanta G. Is human papillomavirus associated with prostate cancer survival? Dis. Markers. 2013; 35 (6): 607–613.
  23. Faoro V., Barbazza R., Bonin S., Brunetti D., Sulfaro S., Stanta G. Detection of HPV E7 oncoviral protein in cervical lesions by a new antibody. Appl. Immun. Mol. Morphol. 2013; 21 (4): 341–350.
  24. Montironi R., Mazzuccheli R., Scarpelli M., Lopez-Beltran A., Fellegara G., Algaba F. Gleason grading of prostate cancer in needle biopsies or radical prostatectomy specimens: contemporary approach, current clinical significance and sources of pathology discrepancies. BJU Int. 2005; 95 (8): 1146–1152.
  25. Thompson I.M., Ankerst D.P., Chi C., Goodman P.J., Tan-gen C.M., Lucia M.S., Feng Z., Parnes H.L., Coltman C.A. Jr. Assessing prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98 (8): 529–534.
  26. Dillner J., Knekt P., Boman J., Lehtinen M., Af Geijersstam V., Sapp M., Schiller J., Maatela J., Aromaa A. Sero-epidemiological association between human-papillomavirus infection and risk of prostate cancer. Int. J. Cancer. 1998; 75 (4): 564–567.
  27. Adami H.O., Kuper H., Andersson S.O., Bergström R., Dillner J. Prostate cancer risk and serologic evidence of human papilloma virus infection: a population based case control study. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev. 2003; 12 (9): 872–875.
  28. Korodi Z., Dillner J., Jellum E., Lumme S., Hallmans G., Thoresen S., Hakulinen T., Stattin P., Luostarinen T., Lehtinen M., Hakama M. Human papillomavirus 16, 18 and 33 infections and risk of prostate cancer: a Nordic nested case control study. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev. 2005; 14 (12): 2952–2955.
  29. Sitas F., Urban M., Stein L., Ruff P., Patel M., O’Connell D., Yu X.Q., Verzijden A., Marais D., Williamson A.L. The relationship between anti–HPV–16 IgG seropositivity and cancer of the cervix, anogenital organs, oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus and prostate in a black South African population. Infect. Agent Cancer. 2007; 2: 6.
  30. Sutcliffe S., Viscidi R.P., Till C., Hoque A.M., Hsing A.W., Thomp-son I.M., Zenilman J.M., De Marzo A.M., Platz E.A. Human pap-illomavirus types 16, 18, and 31 serostatus and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev. 2010; 19 (2): 614–618.
  31. Franco E.L., Villa L.L., Sobrinho J.P., Prado J.M., Rousseau M.C., Désy M., Rohan T.E. Epidemiology of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women from a high-risk area for cervical cancer. J. Infect. Dis. 1999; 180 (5): 1415–1423.
  32. Zumbach K., Kisseljov F., Sacharova O., Shaichaev G., Semjonova L., Pavlova L., Pawlita M. Antibodies against oncoproteins E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in cervical-carcinoma patients from Russia. Int. J. Cancer. 2000; 85 (3): 313–318.
  33. Gillison M.L., Shah K.V. Role of mucosal human papillomavirus in nongenital cancers. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 2003; 31: 57–65.
  34. Weijerman P.C., König J.J., Wong S.T., Niesters H.G., Peehl D.M. Lipofection-mediated immortalization of human prostatic epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin using human papillomavirus type 18 DNA. Cancer Res. 1994; 54 (21): 5579–5583.
  35. Weijerman P.C., van Drunen E., König J.J., Teubel W., Romijn J.C., Schröder F.H., Hagemeijer A. Specific cytogenetic aberrations in two novel human prostatic cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus type 18 DNA. Cancer Gen. Cytogenet. 1997; 99 (2): 108–115.
  36. Weijerman P.C., Zhang Y., Shen J., Dubbink H.J., Romijn J.C., Peehl D.M., Schröder F.H. Expression of prostatic factors measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in human papillomavirus type 18 deoxyribonucleic acid immortalized prostate cell lines. Urology. 1998; 51 (4): 657–662.
  37. Hartwig S., Syrjanen S., Dominiak–Felden G., Brotons M., Castellsague X. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers and nonmalignant diseases in men in Europe. BMC Cancer. 2012; 12: 30.
  38. Reiter P.L., Pendergraft W.F., Brewer N.T. Meta-analysis of human papillomavirus infection concordance. Cancer Epidem. Biomark.
  39. Prev. 2010; 19 (11): 2916–2931.
  40. de Lima Rocha M.G., Faria F.L., Goncalves L., Souza Mdo C., Fernandes P.Á., Fernandes A.P. Prevalence of DNA-HPV in male sexual partners of HPV infected women and concordance of viral types in infected couples. PloS One. 2012; 7 (7): 40988.
  41. Foresta C., Garolla A., Zuccarello D., Pizzol D., Moretti A., Bar-zon L., Palù G. Human papillomavirus found in sperm head of young adult males affects the progressive motility. Fertil. Steril. 2010; 93 (3): 802–806.
  42. Foresta C., Patassini C., Bertoldo A., Menegazzo M., Francavilla F., Barzon L., Ferlin A. Mechanism of human papillomavirus binding to human spermatozoa and fertilizing ability of infected spermatozoa. PloS One. 2011; 6 (3): 15036.
  43. Yang Y., Jia C.W., Ma Y.M., Zhou L.Y., Wang S.Y. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility. Asian J. Androl. 2013; 15 (4): 529–532.
  44. Lenzi A., Mirone V., Gentile V., Bartoletti R., Ficarra V., Foresta C., Mariani L., Mazzoli S., Parisi S.G., Perino A., Picardo M., Zotti C.M. Rome Consensus Conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 117.

Copyright (c) 2015 "Paediatrician" Publishers LLC

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies