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In this review we provide the definition, goals and objectives of neurocritical care, evaluation of brief history of its development. Mechanical ventilation, intracranial hypertension, neuromonitoring as underlying basics of neurocritical care approaches are discussed. The main types of pathology and specific methods used in neurocritical care units are discussed. The results of our own research on brain death — the development of national criteria; for Guillain-Barre syndrome — a double decrease in the length of mechanical ventilation and in 2.5 times of the recovery time for independent walking ability; on diphteric polyneuropathy — reduced by 11 times mortality compared with nation-wide indicators of non-traumatic persistent vegetative state — the development of diagnostic and predictive neurophysiologic criteria are demonstrated. Research data of multiple organ disfunction syndrome in severe stroke are described. Further development of neurocritical care is being discussed.

About the authors

M. A. Piradov

Research center of neurology RAMS

Author for correspondence.
профессор, доктор медицинских наук, член-корреспондент РАМН, заместитель директора НЦН РАМН по научной работе, руководитель отделения реанимации и интенсивной терапии НЦН РАМН Адрес: 125367, Москва, Волоколамское шоссе, д. 80 Тел.: (985) 970-76-11 Russian Federation

V. V. Moroz

V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Resuscitation оf RAMS

член-корреспондент РАМН, профессор, доктор медицинских наук, директор НИИ общей реа- ниматологии РАМН Адрес: 107031, Москва, ул. Петровка, д. 25, стр. 2 Тел.: (495) 694-27-08 Russian Federation

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