COVID-19, septic shock and syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. Part 1

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Abstract


The pandemic of a new coronavirus infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019, COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 became a real challenge to humanity and the medical community in 2020 and raised a number of medical, social and even philosophical questions. An almost avalanche-like increase in the number of infected people in a short time, due to the high contagiousness of viral infection, allowed us to identify groups of patients with mild, moderate and severe forms of the disease. Doctors around the world are faced with an acute problem of treating a large number of patients in critical conditions caused by COVID-19. From the currently available information on clinical cases of COVID-19, it follows that COVID-19 patients in critical condition have a clinical picture of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock with the development of multiple organ failure. The first part of the article discusses the pathogenesis of non-specific universal biological responses of the body in critical condition ― from the Sanarelli-Schwartzman phenomenon to the DIC, septic shock, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The questions of cytokine storm in severe forms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the role of inflammation in the activation of coagulation, and the relationship between inflammation and thrombosis are discussed. Modern ideas about the mechanisms of so-called NETosis, their role in the occurrence of immunothrombosis and inflammation-induced thrombosis in autoimmune diseases ― vasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus is highlighted. The article discusses the possibility of participation of ADAMTS-13 metalloproteinase in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in severe endotheliopathy in patients with viral septic shock.


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About the authors

Victoria O. Bitsadze

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: vikabits@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8404-1042
SPIN-code: 5930-0859

Russian Federation, 8-2, Trubetskaya street, Moscow, 119992

MD, PhD, Professor

Jamilya Kh. Khizroeva

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: jamatotu@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0725-9686
SPIN-code: 8225-4976
Scopus Author ID: 57194547147
ResearcherId: F-8384-2017
Mendeley Profile: https://www.mendeley.com/impact/jamilya-khizroeva2/

Russian Federation, 8-2, Trubetskaya street, Moscow, 119992

MD, PhD, Professor

Alexander D. Makatsariya

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: gemostasis@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7415-4633
SPIN-code: 7538-2966
https://internist.ru/lectors/detail/makatsariya-/

Russian Federation, 8-2, Trubetskaya street, Moscow, 119992

MD, PhD, Professor

Ekaterina V. Slukhanchuk

Petrovsky National Research Center of Surgery

Email: beloborodova@rambler.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7441-2778
2, Abrikosovsky pereulok, Moscow, 119991

MD, PhD, Assistant Professor

Maria V. Tretyakova

Medical Center LLC

Email: tretyakova777@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3628-0804
Timura Frunze str.15/1, 119021, Moscow

MD, PhD, Assistant Professor

Giuseppe Rizzo

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); University of Roma Tor Vergata

Email: giuseppe.rizzo@uniroma2.it
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5525-4353
Scopus Author ID: 7102724281
ResearcherId: G-8234-2018

Russian Federation, Trubetskaya str. 8-2, 119991, Moscow; Ospedale Cristo Re 00167 Roma Italy

MD, PhD, Professor

Jean-Christophe Raymond Gris

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); University Montpellier

Email: jean.christophe.gris@chu-nimes.fr
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9899-9910
Scopus Author ID: 7005114260

Russian Federation, Trubetskaya str. 8-2, 119991, Moscow; Place du Pr. Robert Debré 30039 Nîmes cédex 09

MD, PhD, Professor

Ismail Elalamy

I.M. Sechenov Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); Medicine Sorbonne University, University Hospital Tenon

Email: ismail.elalamy@aphp.fr
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9576-1368
Scopus Author ID: 7003652413

Russian Federation, Trubetskaya str. 8-2, 119991; rue de la Chine 75970 Paris Cédex 20, France

MD, PhD, Professor

Vladimir N. Serov

National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V.I. Kulakov

Email: v_serov@oparina4.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2976-7128

Russian Federation, 117997, Moscow, Academician Oparina street, 4

MD, PhD, Professor

Andrei S. Shkoda

L.A. Vorokhobov City Clinical Hospital Sixty-seven

Email: 67gkb@mail.ru
2/44, Salyama Adilya str., Moscow, 123423

MD, PhD, the head 

Natalia V. Samburova

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: nsamburova@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4564-8439
SPIN-code: 9084-7676
Scopus Author ID: 57208129705
8-2, Trubetskaya street, Moscow, 119992

MD, PhD, Assistant Professor

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1.
Fig. 1. Inflammation and activation of the hemostatic system

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Fig. 2. Neutrophilic extracellular traps NETs

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